35,507 research outputs found

    Critical care provision after colorectal cancer surgery

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    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 2nd largest cause of cancer related mortality in the UK with 40 000 new patients being diagnosed each year. Complications of CRC surgery can occur in the perioperative period that leads to the requirement of organ support. The aim of this study was to identify pre-operative risk factors that increased the likelihood of this occurring. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study of all 6441 patients who underwent colorectal cancer surgery within the West of Scotland Region between 2005 and 2011. Logistic regression was employed to determine factors associated with receiving postoperative organ support. Results: A total of 610 (9 %) patients received organ support. Multivariate analysis identified age ≥65, male gender, emergency surgery, social deprivation, heart failure and type II diabetes as being independently associated with organ support postoperatively. After adjusting for demographic and clinical factors, patients with metastatic disease appeared less likely to receive organ support (p = 0.012). Conclusions: Nearly one in ten patients undergoing CRC surgery receive organ support in the post operative period. We identified several risk factors which increase the likelihood of receiving organ support post operatively. This is relevant when consenting patients about the risks of CRC surgery

    Recent advances in minimally invasive colorectal cancer surgery

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    Laparoscopy has improved surgical treatment of various diseases due to its limited surgical trauma and has developed as an interesting therapeutic alternative for the resection of colorectal cancer. Despite numerous clinical advantages (faster recovery, less pain, fewer wound and systemic complications, faster return to work) the laparoscopic approach to colorectal cancer therapy has also resulted in unusual complications, i.e. ureteral and bladder injury which are rarely observed with open laparotomy. Moreover, pneumothorax, cardiac arrhythmia, impaired venous return, venous thrombosis as well as peripheral nerve injury have been associated with the increased intraabdominal pressure as well as patient's positioning during surgery. Furthermore, undetected small bowel injury caused by the grasping or cauterizing instruments may occur with laparoscopic surgery. In contrast to procedures performed for nonmalignant conditions, the benefits of laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer must be weighed against the potential for poorer long-term outcomes of cancer patients that still has not been completely ruled out. In laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery, several important cancer control issues still are being evaluated, i.e. the extent of lymph node dissection, tumor implantation at port sites, adequacy of intraperitoneal staging as well as the distance between tumor site and resection margins. For the time being it can be assumed that there is no significant difference in lymph node harvest between laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery if oncological principles of resection are followed. As far as the issue of port site recurrence is concerned, it appears to be less prevalent than first thought (range 0-2.5%), and the incidence apparently corresponds with wound recurrence rates observed after open procedures. Short-term (3-5 years) survival rates have been published by a number of investigators, and survival rates after laparoscopic surgery appears to compare well with data collected after conventional surgery for colorectal cancer. However, long-term results of prospective randomized trials are not available. The data published so far indicate that the oncological results of laparoscopic surgery compare well with the results of the conventional open approach. Nonetheless, the limited information available from prospective studies leads us to propose that minimally invasive surgery for colorectal cancer surgery should only be performed within prospective trials

    Morbidity after surgical management of cervical cancer in low and middle income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Objective: To investigate morbidity for patients after the primary surgical management of cervical cancer in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Methods: The Pubmed, Cochrane, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, LILACS and CINAHL were searched for published studies from 1st Jan 2000 to 30th June 2017 reporting outcomes of surgical management of cervical cancer in LMIC. Randomeffects meta-analytical models were used to calculate pooled estimates of surgical complications including blood transfusions, ureteric, bladder, bowel, vascular and nerve injury, fistulae and thromboembolic events. Secondary outcomes included five-year progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Findings: Data were available for 46 studies, including 10,847 patients from 11 middle income countries. Pooled estimates were: blood transfusion 29% (95%CI 0.19–0.41, P = 0.00, I 2 = 97.81), nerve injury 1% (95%CI 0.00–0.03, I 2 77.80, P = 0.00), bowel injury, 0.5% (95%CI 0.01–0.01, I 2 = 0.00, P = 0.77), bladder injury 1% (95%CI 0.01–0.02, P = 0.10, I 2 = 32.2), ureteric injury 1% (95%CI 0.01–0.01, I 2 0.00, P = 0.64), vascular injury 2% (95% CI 0.01– 0.03, I 2 60.22, P = 0.00), fistula 2% (95%CI 0.01–0.03, I 2 = 77.32, P = 0.00,), pulmonary embolism 0.4% (95%CI 0.00–0.01, I 2 26.69, P = 0.25), and infection 8% (95%CI 0.04–0.12, 2 95.72, P = 0.00). 5-year PFS was 83% for laparotomy, 84% for laparoscopy and OS was 85% for laparotomy cases and 80% for laparoscopy. Conclusion: This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of surgical morbidity in cervical cancer in LMIC, which highlights the limitations of the current data and provides a benchmark for future health services research and policy implementation

    Relationship between hospital volume and short-term outcomes: A nationwide population-based study including 75,280 rectal cancer surgical procedures

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    There is growing interest on the potential relationship between hospital volume (HV) and outcomes as it might justify the centralization of care for rectal cancer surgery. From the National Italian Hospital Discharge Dataset, data on 75,280 rectal cancer patients who underwent elective major surgery between 2002 and 2014 were retrieved and analyzed. HV was grouped into tertiles: low-volume performed 1-12, while high-volume hospitals performed 33+ procedures/year. The impact of HV on in-hospital mortality, abdominoperineal resection (APR), 30-day readmission, and length of stay (LOS) was assessed. Risk factors were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. The proportion of procedures performed in low-volume hospitals decreased by 6.7 percent (p<0.001). The rate of in-hospital mortality, APR and 30-day readmission was 1.3%, 16.3%, and 7.2%, respectively, and the median LOS was 13 days. The adjusted risk of in-hospital mortality (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.25-1.78), APR (OR 1.10, 95%CI 1.02-1.19), 30-day readmission (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.38-1.61), and prolonged LOS (OR 2.29, 95%CI 2.05-2.55) were greater for low-volume hospitals than for high-volume hospitals. This study shows an independent impact of HV procedures on all short-term outcome measures, justifying a policy of centralization for rectal cancer surgery, a process which is underwa

    Transperineal magnetic resonance image targeted prostate biopsy versus transperineal template prostate biopsy in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer.

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    PURPOSE: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging can be used to guide prostate biopsy by targeting biopsies to areas in the prostate at high risk for cancer. We compared the detection of clinically significant and insignificant cancer by transperineal magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy and transperineal template guided prostate biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 182 men with a lesion suspicious for cancer on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging underwent transperineal magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy using a cognitive registration technique, followed by systematic transperineal template guided prostate biopsy. The primary outcome was the detection rate of clinically significant prostate cancer. Clinical significance was defined using maximum cancer core length 4 mm or greater and/or Gleason grade 3 + 4 or greater (University College London definition 2). We secondarily evaluated other commonly used thresholds of clinically significant disease, including maximum cancer core length 6 mm or greater and/or Gleason grade 4 + 3 or greater, maximum cancer core length 3 mm or greater and/or Gleason grade 3 + 4 or greater, and maximum cancer core length 2 or greater mm and/or Gleason grade 3 + 4 or greater. Strategies were statistically compared with the McNemar test. RESULTS: Mean ± SD patient age was 63.3 ± 7.2 years. Median prostate specific antigen was 6.7 ng/ml (IQR 4.7-10.0). Clinically significant cancer was detected by magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy and template guided prostate biopsy in 103 (57%) and 113 of the 182 men (62%) (p = 0.174), and clinically insignificant cancer was detected in 17 (9.3%) and 31 (17.0%), respectively (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Prostate biopsy targeted to suspicious lesions on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging has encouraging rates of detection of clinically significant cancer while also decreasing the detection rate of clinically insignificant cancer. This is achieved with fewer biopsy cores than for systematic template guided biopsy. Further prospective, multicenter, comparative trials of the performance of targeting strategies are needed to consider magnetic resonance imaging targeted biopsy an alternative to conventional systematic biopsy

    Surgery during holiday periods and prognosis in oesophageal cancer: a population-based nationwide Swedish cohort study

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    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies indicate an increased short-term and long-term mortality from major cancer surgery performed towards the end of the working week or during the weekend. We hypothesised that the prognosis after major cancer surgery is also negatively influenced by surgery conducted during holiday periods. SETTING: Population-based nationwide Swedish cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer between 1987 and 2010. Among 1820 included patients, 206 (11.3%) and 373 (20.5%) patients were operated on during narrow and wide holiday periods, respectively. INTERVENTIONS: Narrow (7 weeks) and wide (14 weeks) Swedish holiday periods. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: 90-day all-cause, 5-year all-cause and 5-year disease-specific mortality. RESULTS: Narrow holiday period did not increase all-cause 90-day (HR=0.84, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.33), all-cause 5-year (HR=1.01, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.21) or disease-specific 5-year mortality (HR=1.04, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.26). Similarly, wide holiday period did not increase the risk of 90-day (HR=0.79, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.13), all-cause 5-year (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.1) or disease-specific 5-year mortality (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.19). CONCLUSIONS: No measurable effects of holiday periods on short-term or longer term mortality following surgery for oesophageal cancer were observed in this population-based study, indicating that an adequate surgical experience was maintained during holiday periods

    Local anaesthetic bupivacaine induced ovarian and prostate cancer apoptotic cell death and underlying mechanisms in vitro

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    Retrospective studies indicate that the use of regional anesthesia can reduce cancer recurrence after surgery which could be due to ranging from immune function preservation to direct molecular mechanisms. This study was to investigate the effects of bupivacaine on ovarian and prostate cancer cell biology and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell viability, proliferation and migration of ovarian carcinoma (SKOV-3) and prostate carcinoma (PC-3) were examined following treatment with bupivacaine. Cleaved caspase 3, 8 and 9, and GSK-3β, pGSK-3β(tyr216) and pGSK-3β(ser9) expression were assessed by immunofluorescence. FAS ligand neutralization, caspase and GSK-3 inhibitors and GSK-3β siRNA were applied to further explore underlying mechanisms. Clinically relevant concentrations of bupivacaine reduced cell viability and inhibited cellular proliferation and migration in both cell lines. Caspase 8 and 9 inhibition generated partial cell death reversal in SKOV-3, whilst only caspase 9 was effective in PC-3. Bupivacaine increased the phosphorylation of GSK-3β(Tyr216) in SKOV-3 but without measurable effect in PC3. GSK-3β inhibition and siRNA gene knockdown decreased bupivacaine induced cell death in SKOV-3 but not in PC3. Our data suggests that bupivacaine has direct ‘anti-cancer’ properties through the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in ovarian cancer but only the intrinsic pathway in prostate cancer

    Complete mesocolic excision does not increase short-term complications in laparoscopic left-sided colectomies : a comparative retrospective single-center study

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    Background: Since the implementation of total mesorectal excision (TME) in rectal cancer surgery, oncological outcomes improved dramatically. With the technique of complete mesocolic excision (CME) with central vascular ligation (CVL), the same surgical principles were introduced to the field of colon cancer surgery. Until now, current literature fails to invariably demonstrate its oncological superiority when compared to conventional surgery, and there are some concerns on increased morbidity. The aim of this study is to compare short-term outcomes after left-sided laparoscopic CME versus conventional surgery. Methods: In this retrospective analysis, data on all laparoscopic sigmoidal resections performed during a 3-year period (October 2015 to October 2018) at our institution were collected. A comparative analysis between the CME group-for sigmoid colon cancer-and the non-CME group-for benign disease-was performed. Results: One hundred sixty-three patients met the inclusion criteria and were included for analysis. Data on 66 CME resections were compared with 97 controls. Median age and operative risk were higher in the CME group. One leak was observed in the CME group (1/66) and 3 in the non-CME group (3/97), representing no significant difference. Regarding hospital stay, postoperative complications, surgical site infections, and intra-abdominal collections, no differences were observed. There was a slightly lower reoperation (1.5% versus 6.2%, p = 0.243) and readmission rate (4.5% versus 6.2%, p = 0.740) in the CME group during the first 30 postoperative days. Operation times were significantly longer in the CME group (210 versus 184 min, p < 0.001), and a trend towards longer pathological specimens in the CME group was noted (21 vs 19 cm, p = 0.059). Conclusions: CME does not increase short-term complications in laparoscopic left-sided colectomies. Significantly longer operation times were observed in the CME group

    A clinical risk score to predict 3-, 5- and 10-year survival in patients undergoing surgery for Dukes B colorectal cancer

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    &lt;p&gt;Background: The prognosis of patients with Dukes stage B colorectal cancer is unpredictable and there is continuing interest in simply and reliably identifying patients at high risk of developing recurrence and dying of their disease. The aim of this study was to devise a clinical risk score to predict 3-, 5- and 10-year survival in patients undergoing surgery for Dukes stage B colorectal cancer.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Methods: A total of 1350 patients who underwent surgery for Dukes stage B colorectal cancer between 1991 and 1994 in 11 hospitals in Scotland were included in the analysis.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Results: On follow-up, 926 patients died of whom 479 died of their cancer. At 10 years, cancer-specific survival was 61% and overall survival was 38%. On multivariate analysis, age &#8805;75 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.82, P=0.001), emergency presentation (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.27-1.99, P&#60;0.001) and anastomotic leak (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.24-3.78, P&#60;0.01) were independently associated with cancer-specific survival in colon cancer. On multivariate analysis, only age &#8805;75 (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.14-2.18, P&#60;0.01) was associated with cancer-specific survival in rectal cancer. Age, presentation and anastomotic leak hazards could be simply added to form a clinical risk score from 0 to 2 in colon cancer. In patients with Dukes B stage colon cancer, the cancer-specific survival at 5 years for patients with a cumulative score 0 was 81%, 1 was 67% and 2 was 63%. The cancer-specific survival rate at 10 years for patients with a clinical risk score of 0 was 72%, 1 was 58% and 2 was 53%.&lt;/p&gt; &lt;p&gt;Conclusion: The results of this study, in a mature cohort, introduce a new simple clinical risk score for patients undergoing surgery for Dukes B colon cancer. This provides a solid foundation for the examination of the impact of additional factors and treatment on prediction of 3-, 5- and 10-year cancer-specific survival.&lt;/p&gt