1,219,494 research outputs found

    Emerging Tools for Aquatic Pathogen Discovery and Description

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    Symposium 7 (Dis. of Ben. Invertebr.) Early mortality syndrome is an infectious disease with a bacterial etiologyLoc Tran, Kevin Fitzsimmons and Donald V. LightnerPolicy, phylogeny, and the parasite Grant D. Stentiford, Stephen W. Feist, David M. Stone, Edmund J. Peeler and David BassThe Next Generation of Crustacean Health: Disease Diagnostics Using Modern TranscriptomicsK. Fraser Clark, Spencer J. Greenwood Environmental DNA as a tool for detection and identification of aquatic parasites: known unknowns and just plain unknownsHanna Hartikainen, Grant D. Stentiford, Kelly Bateman, Stephen W. Feist, David M. Stone, Matt Longshaw, Georgia Ward, Charlotte Wood, Beth Okamura and David Bas

    Non-Target Effects on Biological Pesticides Transgenic Crops

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    The impact of herbicide tolerant crops on non-target organismsRamon Albajes, Marina S. Lee and Agnès ArdanuyYour Right to Know What You Eat: On the Occurrence of Viable Bacillus thuringiensis in Commercial Food ProductsBrian FedericiEnvironmental risk assessment of genetically engineered crops for spidersMichael Meissle, Jörg RomeisConclusions from 10 years of accumulated evidence from publicly funded field trials research with Bt-maize in GermanyStefan Rausche

    Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Dangke and Indonesian Beef as Hypocholesterolaemic Agent

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    Lactobacillus fermentum strains were successfully isolated from dangke which was a fresh cheese-like product originating from Enrekang, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. In addition, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophillus were isolated from beef. This study aimed to investigate the ability of those 8 LAB strains from dangke and beef in lowering cholesterol level by using in vitro study. Strain of Lactic acid bacteria used were L. fermentum strains (A323L, B111K, B323K, C113L, C212L), L. plantarum strains (IIA-1A5 and IIA-2C12), and L. acidophillus IIA-2B4. Variables observed were identification of Bile Salt Hydrolase (BSH) gene by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), BSH activity and cholesterol assimilation. Phylogenetic tree indicated homology of L. plantarum IIA-IA5 was 98% to BSH gene of L. plantarum Lp529 with access code of FJ439771 and FJ439775 obtained from GenBank. The results demonstrated that eight strains of LAB isolated from dangke and beef that potentially showed cholesterol-lowering effects were L. fermentum B111K and L. plantarum IIA-1A5. L. fermentum B111K was able to assimilate cholesterol by 4.10% with assimilated cholesterol of 0.13 mg in 1010 cells. In addition, L. plantarum IIA-1A5 had BSH gene and BSH activity, as well as the ability to assimilate cholesterol by 8.10% with assimilated cholesterol of 0.06 mg in 1010 cells. It is concluded that L. fermentum B111K and L. plantarum IIA-1A5 were strains that showed cholesterol-lowering effects

    Bacteria homologus to Aeromonas capable of microcystin degradation

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    Water blooms dominated by cyanobacteria are capable of producing hepatotoxins known as microcystins. These toxins are dangerous to people and to the environment. Therefore, for a better understanding of the biological termination of this increasingly common phenomenon, bacteria with the potential to degrade cyanobacteria-derived hepatotoxins and the degradative activity of culturable bacteria were studied. Based on the presence of the mlrA gene, bacteria with a homology to the Sphingopyxis and Stenotrophomonas genera were identified as those presenting potential for microcystins degradation directly in the water samples from the Sulejów Reservoir (SU, Central Poland). However, this biodegrading potential has not been confirmed in in vitro experiments. The degrading activity of the culturable isolates from the water studied was determined in more than 30 bacterial mixes. An analysis of the biodegradation of the microcystin-LR (MC-LR) together with an analysis of the phylogenetic affiliation of bacteria demonstrated for the first time that bacteria homologous to the Aeromonas genus were able to degrade the mentioned hepatotoxin, although the mlrA gene was not amplified. The maximal removal efficiency of MC-LR was 48%. This study demonstrates a new aspect of interactions between the microcystin-containing cyanobacteria and bacteria from the Aeromonas genus.The authors would like to acknowledge the European Cooperation in Science and Technology, COST Action ES 1105 “CYANOCOST - Cyanobacterial blooms and toxins in water resources: Occurrence, impacts and management” for adding value to this study through networking and knowledge sharing with European experts and researchers in the field. The Sulejów Reservoir is a part of the Polish National Long- Term Ecosystem Research Network and the European LTER site

    Physico-chemical factors and bacteria in fish ponds

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    Analyses of pond water and mud samples show that nitrifying bacteria (including ammonifying bacteria, nitrite bacteria, nitrobacteria and denitrifying bacteria) are in general closely correlated with various physico-chemical factors, ammonifying bacteria are mainly correlated with dissolved oxygen; denitrifying bacteria are inversely correlated with phosphorus; nitrite bacteria are closely correlated with nitrites, nitrobacteria are inversely correlated with ammoniac nitrogen. The nitrifying bacteria are more closely correlated with heterotrophic bacteria. Nitrobacteria are inversely correlated with anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria. The correlation is quite weak between all the nitrite bacteria which indicates that the nitrite bacteria have a controlling and regulating function in water quality and there is no interdependence as each plays a role of its own. The paper also discusses how the superficial soil (pond mud down to 3.5 cm deep) and different layers of the mud affect the biomass of bacteria. The study shows that the top superficial layer (down to 1.5 cm deep) is the major area for decomposing and converting organic matter


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    The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) for Enteric Bacteria is a collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA-CVM), and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The primary purpose of NARMS at CDC is to monitor antimicrobial resistance among foodborne enteric bacteria isolated from humans. Other components of the interagency NARMS program include surveillance for resistance in enteric bacterial pathogens isolated from foods, conducted by the FDA-CVM (http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/AntimicrobialResistance/NationalAntimicrobialResistanceMonitoringSystem/default.htm), and resistance in enteric pathogens isolated from animals, conducted by the USDA Agricultural Research Service (http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=66-12-05-08). Many NARMS activities are conducted within the framework of CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP), Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity (ELC) Program, and the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). In addition to surveillance of resistance in enteric pathogens, the NARMS program at CDC also includes public health research into the mechanisms of resistance, education efforts to promote prudent use of antimicrobial agents, and studies of resistance in commensal organisms. Before NARMS was established, CDC monitored antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter through periodic surveys of isolates from a panel of sentinel counties. NARMS at CDC began in 1996 with prospective monitoring of antimicrobial resistance among clinical non-typhoidal Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 isolates in 14 sites. In 1997, testing of clinical Campylobacter isolates was initiated in the five sites participating in FoodNet. Testing of clinical Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and Shigella isolates was added in 1999. Since 2003, all 50 states have been forwarding a representative sample of non-typhoidal Salmonella, Salmonella ser. Typhi, Shigella, and E. coli O157 isolates to NARMS for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and 10 FoodNet states have been participating in Campylobacter surveillance. This annual report includes CDC's surveillance data for 2008 for non-typhoidal Salmonella, typhoidal Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter and E. coli O157 isolates. Data for earlier years are presented in tables and graphs when appropriate. Antimicrobial classes defined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) are used in data presentation and analysis. CLSI classes constitute major classifications of antimicrobial agents, e.g., aminoglycosides and cephems. This report also includes the World Health Organization's categorization of antimicrobials of critical importance to human medicine. The table includes only antimicrobials that are tested in NARMS.List of tables -- List of figures -- List of boxes -- List of abbreviations and acronyms -- NARMS working group -- What is new in the NARMS report for 2008 -- Introduction -- WHO categorization of antimicrobial agents -- Summary of NARMS 2008 surveillance data -- Surveillance and laboratory testing methods -- Results -- References -- NARMS publications in 2008 -- Appendix A. Summary of Escherichia coli resistance surveillance pilot study, 2008C5215511-A.Includes bibliographical references (p. 65-66).CDC. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria (NARMS): Human Isolates Final Report, 2008. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, 2010

    Working with bacteria and putting bacteria to work: The biopolitics of synthetic biology for energy in the United Kingdom

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    The UK government has made significant investment into so called ‘fourth-generation’ biofuel technologies. These biofuels are based on engineering the metabolic pathways of bacteria in order to create products compatible with existing infrastructure. Bacteria play an important role in what is promoted as a potentially new biological industrial revolution, which could address some of the negative environmental legacies of the last. This article presents results from ethnographic research with synthetic biologists who are challenged with balancing the curiosity-driven and intrinsically fulfilling scientific task of working with bacteria, alongside the policy-driven task of putting bacteria to work for extrinsic economic gains. In addition, the scientists also have to balance these demands with a new research governance framework, Responsible Research and Innovation, which envisions technoscientific innovation will be responsive to societal concerns and work in collaboration with stakeholders and members of the public. Major themes emerging from the ethnographic research revolve around stewardship, care, responsibility and agency. An overall conflict surfaces between individual agents assuming responsibility for ‘stewarding’ bacteria, against funding systems and structures imposing responsibility for economic growth. We discuss these findings against the theoretical backdrop of a new concept of ‘energopolitics’ and an anthropology of ethics and responsibility


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