48 research outputs found

### Sample-path large deviations for tandem and priority queues with Gaussian inputs

This paper considers Gaussian flows multiplexed in a queueing network. A
single node being a useful but often incomplete setting, we examine more
advanced models. We focus on a (two-node) tandem queue, fed by a large number
of Gaussian inputs. With service rates and buffer sizes at both nodes scaled
appropriately, Schilder's sample-path large-deviations theorem can be applied
to calculate the asymptotics of the overflow probability of the second queue.
More specifically, we derive a lower bound on the exponential decay rate of
this overflow probability and present an explicit condition for the lower bound
to match the exact decay rate. Examples show that this condition holds for a
broad range of frequently used Gaussian inputs. The last part of the paper
concentrates on a model for a single node, equipped with a priority scheduling
policy. We show that the analysis of the tandem queue directly carries over to
this priority queueing system.Comment: Published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/105051605000000133 in the
Annals of Applied Probability (http://www.imstat.org/aap/) by the Institute
of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

### GPS queues with heterogeneous traffic classes

We consider a queue fed by a mixture of light-tailed and heavy-tailed traffic. The two traffic classes are served in accordance with the generalized processor sharing (GPS) discipline. GPS-based scheduling algorithms, such as weighted fair queueing (WFQ), have emerged as an important mechanism for achieving service differentiation in integrated networks. We derive the asymptotic workload behavior of the light-tailed class for the situation where its GPS weight is larger than its traffic intensity. The GPS mechanism ensures that the workload is bounded above by that in an isolated system with the light-tailed class served in isolation at a constant rate equal to its GPS weight. We show that the workload distribution is in fact asymptotically equivalent to that in the isolated system, multiplied with a certain pre-factor, which accounts for the interaction with the heavy-tailed class. Specifically, the pre-factor represents the probability that the heavy-tailed class is backlogged long enough for the light-tailed class to reach overflow. The results provide crucial qualitative insight in the typical overflow scenario

### A reduced-load equivalence for generalised processor sharing networks with heavy-tailed input flows

We consider networks where traffic is served according to the Generalised Processor Sharing (GPS) principle. GPS-based scheduling algorithms are considered important for providing differentiated quality of service in integrated-services networks. We are interested in the workload of a particular flow~$i$ at the bottleneck node on its path. Flow $i$ is assumed to have long-tailed traffic characteristics. We distinguish between two traffic scenarios, (i) flow~$i$ generates instantaneous traffic bursts and (ii) flow $i$ generates traffic according to an on/off process. In addition, we consider two configurations of feed-forward networks. First we focus on the situation where other flows join the path of flow~$i$. Then we extend the model by adding flows which can branch off at any node, with cross traffic as a special case. We prove that under certain conditions the tail behaviour of the workload distribution of flow~$i$ is equivalent to that in a {em two-node tandem network where flow~$i$ is served in isolation at {em constant rates. These rates only depend on the traffic characteristics of the other flows through their average rates. This means that the results do not rely on any specific assumptions regarding the traffic processes of the other flows. In particular, flow~$i$ is not affected by excessive activity of flows with `heavier-tailed' traffic characteristics. This confirms that GPS has the potential to protect individual flows against extreme behaviour of other flows, while obtaining substantial multiplexing gains

### Sample-path large deviations for tandem and priority queues with Gaussian inputs

This paper considers Gaussian flows multiplexed in a queueing network. A single node being a useful but often incomplete setting, we examine more advanced models. We focus on a (two-node) tandem queue, fed by a large number of Gaussian inputs. With service rates and buffer sizes at both nodes scaled appropriately, Schilder's sample-path large deviations theorem can be applied to calculate the asymptotics of the overflow probability of the second queue. More specifically, we derive a lower bound on the exponential decay rate of this overflow probability and present an explicit condition for the lower bound to match the exact decay rate. Examples show that this condition holds for a broad range of frequently-used Gaussian inputs. The last part of the paper concentrates on a model for a single node, equipped with a priority scheduling policy. We show that the analysis of the tandem queue directly carries over to this priority queueing system. iffalse {it Perhaps:} We conclude by presenting a number of motivated conjectures for the analysis of a queue operating under the generalized processor sharing discipline

### A reduced-load equivalence for generalised processor sharing networks with heavy-tailed input flows

We consider networks where traffic is served according to the Generalised Processor Sharing (GPS) principle. GPS-based scheduling algorithms are considered important for providing differentiated quality of service in integrated-services networks. We are interested in the workload of a particular flow~$i$ at the bottleneck node on its path. Flow $i$ is assumed to have long-tailed traffic characteristics. We distinguish between two traffic scenarios, (i) flow~$i$ generates instantaneous traffic bursts and (ii) flow $i$ generates traffic according to an on/off process. In addition, we consider two configurations of feed-forward networks. First we focus on the situation where other flows join the path of flow~$i$. Then we extend the model by adding flows which can branch off at any node, with cross traffic as a special case. We prove that under certain conditions the tail behaviour of the workload distribution of flow~$i$ is equivalent to that in a {em two-node tandem network where flow~$i$ is served in isolation at {em constant rates. These rates only depend on the traffic characteristics of the other flows through their average rates. This means that the results do not rely on any specific assumptions regarding the traffic processes of the other flows. In particular, flow~$i$ is not affected by excessive activity of flows with `heavier-tailed' traffic characteristics. This confirms that GPS has the potential to protect individual flows against extreme behaviour of other flows, while obtaining substantial multiplexing gains

### Sample-path large deviations for generalized processor sharing queues with Gaussian inputs

In this paper we consider the Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS) mechanism serving two traffic classes. These classes consist of a large number of independent identically distributed Gaussian flows with stationary increments. We are interested in the logarithmic asymptotics or exponential decay rates of the overflow probabilities. We first derive both an upper and a lower bound on the overflow probability. Scaling both the buffer sizes of the queues and the service rate with the number of sources, we apply Schilder's sample-path large deviations theorem to calculate the logarithmic asymptotics of the upper and lower bound. We discuss in detail the conditions under which the upper and lower bound match. Finally we show that our results can be used to choose the values of the GPS weights. The results are illustrated by numerical examples

### Large buffer asymptotics for generalized processor sharing queues with Gaussian inputs

In this paper we derive large-buffer asymptotics for a two-class Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS) model. We assume both classes to have Gaussian characteristics. We distinguish three cases depending on whether the GPS weights are above or below the average rate at which traffic is sent. First, we calculate exact asymptotic upper and lower bounds, then we calculate the logarithmic asymptotics, and finally we show that the decay rates of the upper and lower bound match. We apply our results to two special Gaussian models: the integrated Gaussian process and the fractional Brownian motion. Finally we derive the logarithmic large-buffer asymptotics for the case where a Gaussian flow interacts with an on-off flo

### Series Expansions for Finite-State Markov Chains

This paper provides series expansions of the stationary distribution of a finite Markov chain. This leads to an efficient numerical algorithm for computing the stationary distribution of a finite Markov chain. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the performance of the algorithm

### Large deviations of infinite intersections of events in Gaussian processes

AbstractConsider events of the form {Zs≥ζ(s),s∈S}, where Z is a continuous Gaussian process with stationary increments, ζ is a function that belongs to the reproducing kernel Hilbert space R of process Z, and S⊂R is compact. The main problem considered in this paper is identifying the function β∗∈R satisfying β∗(s)≥ζ(s) on S and having minimal R-norm. The smoothness (mean square differentiability) of Z turns out to have a crucial impact on the structure of the solution. As examples, we obtain the explicit solutions when ζ(s)=s for s∈[0,1] and Z is either a fractional Brownian motion or an integrated Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process

### Generalized processor sharing queues with heterogenous traffic classes

We consider a queue fed by a mixture of light-tailed and heavy-tailed traffic. The two traffic flows are served in accordance with the Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS) discipline. GPS-based scheduling algorithms, such as Weighted Fair Queueing (WFQ), have emerged as an important mechanism for achieving service differentiation in integrated networks. We derive the asymptotic workload behavior of the light-tailed traffic flow under the assumption that its GPS weight is larger than its traffic intensity. The GPS mechanism ensures that the workload is bounded above by that in an isolated system with the light-tailed flow served in isolation at a constant rate equal to its GPS weight. We show that the workload distribution is in fact asymptotically equivalent to that in the isolated system, multiplied with a certain pre-factor, which accounts for the interaction with the heavy-tailed flow. Specifically, the pre-factor represents the probability that the heavy-tailed flow is backlogged long enough for the light-tailed flow to reach overflow. The results provide crucial qualitative insight in the typical overflow scenario