19 research outputs found

    Role of cysteine residues in the redox-regulated oligomerization and nucleotide binding to EhRabX3

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    The enteric protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, an etiological agent of amebiasis, is involved in the adhesion and destruction of human tissues. Worldwide, the parasite causes about 50 million cases of amebiasis and 100,000 deaths annually. EhRabX3, a unique amoebic Rab GTPase with tandem G-domains, possesses an unusually large number of cysteine residues in its N-terminal domain. Crystal structure of EhRabX3 revealed an intra-molecular disulfide bond between C39 and C163 which is critical for maintaining the 3-dimensional architecture and biochemical function of this protein. The remaining six cysteine residues were found to be surface exposed and predicted to be involved in inter-molecular disulfide bonds. In the current study, using biophysical and mutational approaches, we have investigated the role of the cysteine residues in the assembly of EhRabX3 oligomer. The self-association of EhRabX3 is found to be redox sensitive, in vitro. Furthermore, the oligomeric conformation of EhRabX3 failed to bind and exchange the guanine nucleotide, indicating structural re-organization of the active site. Altogether, our results provide valuable insights into the redox-dependent oligomerization of EhRabX3 and its implication on nucleotide binding

    PI Kinase-EhGEF2-EhRho5 axis contributes to LPA stimulated macropinocytosis in Entamoeba histolytica

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    International audienceEntamoeba histolytica is a protozoan responsible for several pathologies in humans. Trophozoites breach the intestinal site to enter the bloodstream and thus traverse to a secondary site. Macropinocytosis and phagocytosis, collectively accounting for heterophagy, are the two major processes responsible for sustenance of Entamoeba histolytica within the host. Both of these processes require significant rearrangements in the structure to entrap the target. Rho GTPases play an indispensable role in mustering proteins that regulate cytoskeletal remodelling. Unlike phagocytosis which has been studied in extensive detail, information on machinery of macropinocytosis in E. histolytica is still limited. In the current study, using site directed mutagenesis and RNAi based silencing, coupled with functional studies, we have demonstrated the involvement of EhRho5 in constitutive and LPA stimulated macropinocytosis. We also report that LPA, a bioactive phospholipid present in the bloodstream of the host, activates EhRho5 and translocates it from cytosol to plasma membrane and endomembrane compartments. Using biochemical and FRAP studies, we established that a PI Kinase acts upstream of EhRho5 in LPA mediated signalling. We further identified EhGEF2 as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor of EhRho5. In the amoebic trophozoites, EhGEF2 depletion leads to reduced macropinocytic efficiency of trophozoites, thus phenocopying its substrate. Upon LPA stimulation, EhGEF2 is found to sequester near the plasma membrane in a wortmannin sensitive fashion, explaining a possible mode for activation of EhRho5 in the amoebic trophozoites. Collectively, we propose that LPA stimulated macropinocytosis in E. histolytica is driven by the PI Kinase-EhGEF2-EhRho5 axis

    Biophysical studies on calcium and carbohydrate binding to carbohydrate recognition domain of Gal/GalNAc lectin from Entamoeba histolytica: insights into host cell adhesion

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    Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric parasite expresses a Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin that contributes to its virulence by establishing adhesion to host cell. In this study, carbohydrate recognition domain of Hgl (EhCRD) was purified and biophysical studies were conducted to understand the thermodynamic basis of its binding to carbohydrate and Ca. Here, we show that carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of the lectin binds to calcium through DPN motif. To decipher the role of calcium in carbohydrate binding and host cell adhesion, biophysical and cell-based studies were carried out. We demonstrated that the presence of the cation neither change the affinity of the lectin for carbohydrates nor alters its conformation. Mutation of the calcium-binding motif in EhCRD resulted in complete loss of ability to bind calcium but retained its affinity for carbohydrates. Purified EhCRD significantly diminished adhesion of the amebic trophozoites to Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells as well as triggered red blood cell agglutination. The calcium-binding defective mutant abrogated amebic adhesion to CHO cells similar to the wild-type protein, but it failed to agglutinate RBCs suggesting a differential role of the cation in these two processes. This study provides the first molecular description of the role of calcium in Gal/GalNAc mediated host cell adhesion

    Crystal Structure Analysis of Wild Type and Fast Hydrolyzing Mutant of EhRabX3, a Tandem Ras Superfamily GTPase from Entamoeba histolytica

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    The enteric protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, is the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, liver abscess and colitis in human. Vesicular trafficking plays a key role in the survival and virulence of the protozoan and is regulated by various Rab GTPases. EhRabX3 is a catalytically inefficient amoebic Rab protein, which is unique among the eukaryotic Ras superfamily by virtue of its tandem domain organization. Here, we report the crystal structures of GDP-bound fast hydrolyzing mutant (V71A/K73Q) and GTP-bound wild type EhRabX3 at 3.1 and 2.8 Å resolutions, respectively. Though both G-domains possess "phosphate binding loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases fold", only the N-terminal domain binds to guanine nucleotide. The relative orientation of the N-terminal domain and C-terminal domain is stabilized by numerous inter-domain interactions. Compared to other Ras superfamily members, both the GTPase domains displayed large deviation in switch II perhaps due to non-conservative substitutions in this region. As a result, entire switch II is restructured and moved away from the nucleotide binding pocket, providing a rationale for the diminished GTPase activity of EhRabX3. The N-terminal GTPase domain possesses unusually large number of cysteine residues. X-ray crystal structure of the fast hydrolyzing mutant of EhRabX3 revealed that C39 and C163 formed an intra-molecular disulfide bond. Subsequent mutational and biochemical studies suggest that C39 and C163 are critical for maintaining the structural integrity and function of EhRabX3. Structure-guided functional investigation of cysteine mutants could provide the physiological implications of the disulfide bond and could allow us to design potential inhibitors for the better treatment of intestinal amebiasis

    Atypical switch-I Arginine plays a catalytic role in GTP hydrolysis by Rab21 from Entamoeba histolytica

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    Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, liver abscess and colitis, exploits its vesicular trafficking machinery for survival and virulence. Rab family of small GTPases play a key role in the vesicular transport by undergoing the GTP/GDP cycle which is central to the biological processes. Amoebic genome encodes several atypical Rab GTPases which are unique due to absence of conserved sequence motif(s) or atypical residues in their catalytic site [Saito-Nakano et al., 2005]. Previously, EhRab21 has been reported to involve in amoebic invasion and migration [Emmanuel et al., 2015]. The conserved Glutamine of switch-II region is universally accepted to be crucial for GTP hydrolysis. Mutations that reduce the sidechain polarity of Glutamine render the protein GTPase activity deficient [Krengel et al., 1990]. Here, we report a catalytic role of atypical switch-I Arginine (R36) in intrinsic GTP hydrolysis catalysed by EhRab21. Unlike the GTPase activity deficient QL mutants, the GTPase activity of EhRab21Q64L was found to be marginally enhanced compared to the wild-type protein. Although EhRab21R36L mutant showed normal GTPase activity, the double mutant (R36L/Q64L) was found to be GTPase deficient. Thus, EhRab21 is a unique member of small GTPase family in which an atypical switch-I Arginine is capable of driving GTP hydrolysis independent of the conserved switch-II Glutamine

    Small GTPase Rab21 Mediates Fibronectin Induced Actin Reorganization in <i>Entamoeba histolytica</i>: Implications in Pathogen Invasion

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    <div><p>The protozoan parasite <i>Entamoeba histolytica</i> causes a wide spectrum of intestinal infections. In severe cases, the trophozoites can breach the mucosal barrier, invade the intestinal epithelium and travel via the portal circulation to the liver, where they cause hepatic abscesses, which can prove fatal if left untreated. The host Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in amoebic invasion by triggering an array of cellular responses in the parasite, including induction of actin rich adhesion structures. Similar actin rich protrusive structures, known as ‘invadosomes’, promote chemotactic migration of the metastatic cancer cells and non-transformed cells by remodeling the ECM. Recent studies showed a central role for Rab GTPases, the master regulators of vesicular trafficking, in biogenesis of invadosomes. Here, we showed that fibronectin, a major host ECM component induced actin remodeling in the parasite in a Rab21 dependent manner. The focalized actin structures formed were reminiscent of the mammalian invadosomes. By using various approaches, such as immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, along with <i>in vitro</i> invasion assay and matrix degradation assay, we show that the fibronectin induced formation of amoebic actin dots depend on the nucleotide status of the GTPase. The ECM components, fibronectin and collagen type I, displayed differential control over the formation of actin dots, with fibronectin positively and collagen type I negatively modulating it. The cell surface adhesion molecule Gal/GalNAc complex was also found to impose additional regulation on this process, which might have implication in collagen type I mediated suppression of actin dots.</p></div

    Essential and selective role of SNX12 in transport of endocytic and retrograde cargo

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    The endosomal protein-sorting machineries play vital roles in diverse physiologically important cellular processes. Much of the core membrane-sorting apparatus is conserved in evolution, such as retromer, which is involved in the recycling of a diverse set of cargoes via the retrograde trafficking route. Here, in an RNAi-based loss-of-function study, we identified that suppression of SNX12 leads to a severe blockage in CIM6PR (also known as IGF2R) transport and alters the morphology of the endocytic compartments. We demonstrate that SNX12 is involved in the early phase of CIM6PR transport, and mediates receptor recycling upstream of the other well-established SNX components of retromer. Ultra-structural analysis revealed that SNX12 resides on tubulo-vesicular structures, despite it lacking a BAR domain. Furthermore, we illustrate that SNX12 plays a key role in intraluminal vesicle formation and in the maturation of a subpopulation of early endosomes into late endosomes, thereby regulating selective endocytic transport of cargo for degradation. This study therefore provides evidence for the existence of early endosomal subpopulations that have differential roles in the sorting of the cargoes along endocytic degradative pathways
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