444 research outputs found

    Is Locking Domestic Funds into the Local Market Beneficial? Evidence from the Polish Pension Reforms

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    This paper is concerned with the effect of enforced home bias on the development of emerging stock markets. It provides a detailed study of the impact on the Warsaw Stock Exchange of the Polish pension fund reforms and the associated restrictions on international investment. The time path of market development for the Warsaw Stock Exchange is compared with a benchmark sample consisting of the other seven post-communist countries that joined the EU in May 2004. It is shown that benefits arising from the pension funds’ increased investment in the home market are short-lived. In the long run, the relative performance of the Polish market returned to pre-1999 levels or worse, suggesting that enforced home bias on emerging markets may be detrimental, rather than beneficial, to the long-run development of the market.pension reforms, home bias, stock market development, transition countries

    Deindustrialisation. Lessons from the StructuralOutcomes of Post-Communist Transition

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    Theoretical and empirical studies show that deindustrialisation, broadly observed in developed countries, is an inherent part of the economic development pattern. However, post-communist countries, while being only middle-income economies, have also experienced deindustrialisation. Building on the model developed by Rowthorn and Wells (1987) we explain this phenomenon and show that there is a strong negative relationship between the magnitude of deindustrialisation and the efficiency and consistency of market reforms. We also demonstrate that reforms of the agricultural sector play a significant role in placing a transition country on a development path that guarantees convergence to EU employment structures.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/39847/3/wp463.pd

    Profitability Measures and Competition Law

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    The paper outlines various measures of profitability and considers what role they can play in competition law. We argue that profitability measures can provide a good answer to the wrong question and a much less good answer to the question we really want to answer. Using appropriate definitions of asset value it is possible to identify whether a firm earns more than the absolute minimum needed to cover cost and compensate for risk, i.e., whether profitability measures such as the internal rate of return and the accounting rate of return are above the cost of capital. However, both the empirical evidence we present and theory indicates that this does not really help in most cases. Knowing that a firm is earning say, half a percent more than the cost of capital is not really much help in almost all competition law cases. But we show that once the rate of return deviates from the cost of capital it becomes hard to measure. Using simple examples we show that shifts in cash flows that preserve the net present value of a project can have dramatic effects on profitability measures. Hence, it is hard to assess the quantity of the “excessive” return. Furthermore, this problem is likely to be far more prevalent today than in the past given the growth in outsourcing (since outsourcing has exactly this type of effect on cash flows). Despite such problems, we argue that the measurement of profit has a role to play in competition law but that the analysis is far more of an art form and far less of a simple statistical procedure.profitability measures, excess return, competition

    Deindustrialisation and Structural Change During the Post-Communist Transition

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    The aim of this paper is to model the evolution of employment structure in post-communist economies in the broader context of deindustrialisation. The paper builds on the model of structural change developed by Rowthorn and Wells (1987). We show that the starting point of high industry sector share in total employment and its direct fall when productivity of sectors changes in favour of services can be explained in terms of this framework. Moreover, the model can also describe the phenomenon of a further expansion of the agriculture, observed in countries classified as "less consistent" in the reforms implementation. Hence, we distinguish two development paths, the efficient one, called "horizontal", and the inefficient one called "vertical". We illustrate it with empirical data, using alternative measures of structural change and patterns of structural evolutions during transition. Finally, we discuss the link between the EBRD indicators of reforms and structural change. We show that the "quality" of reforms, not the initial GDP level determines a country's development path.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/39767/3/wp383.pd

    Lichens in the rural landscape of the Warmia Plain

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    Lichens and lichenicolous fungi in the rural landscape of the Warmia Plain were studied. Lichen species were observed on old wooden fences, roadside trees, fruit trees, pylons, farm machinery, buildings and bridges. The analysed biota consists of 104 taxa with several noteworthy and rare lichens

    Institutional and individual investors: Saving for old age

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    This paper brings together the academic literature on individual and institutional investors in order to understand the nature of difficulties faced by them and set the background for the Special Issue. This introductory article and the papers in the Special Issue contribute to the debate on how to support individuals in their savings commitments and investment decision-making and whether and how institutional investors have fulfilled their role in supporting the development of the funded pension industry. There are three main conclusions: (i) individual investors are not ready for the role that has been assigned to them in the pension industry, (ii) institutional investors are a long way short of establishing healthy relational contracts and trustworthy relationships with their clients, and (iii) more effective regulation may be needed
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