4,248 research outputs found

    Bright solitons in Bose-Fermi mixtures

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    We consider the formation of bright solitons in a mixture of Bose and Fermi degenerate gases confined in a three-dimensional elongated harmonic trap. The Bose and Fermi atoms are assumed to effectively attract each other whereas bosonic atoms repel each other. Strong enough attraction between bosonic and fermionic components can change the character of the interaction within the bosonic cloud from repulsive to attractive making thus possible the generation of bright solitons in the mixture. On the other hand, such structures might be in danger due to the collapse phenomenon existing in attractive gases. We show, however, that under some conditions (defined by the strength of the Bose-Fermi components attraction) the structures which neither spread nor collapse can be generated. For elongated enough traps the formation of solitons is possible even at the ``natural'' value of the mutual Bose-Fermi (87^{87}Rb -40^{40}K in our case) scattering length.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figures, 1 tabl

    Coexistence of Weak and Strong Wave Turbulence in a Swell Propagation

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    By performing two parallel numerical experiments -- solving the dynamical Hamiltonian equations and solving the Hasselmann kinetic equation -- we examined the applicability of the theory of weak turbulence to the description of the time evolution of an ensemble of free surface waves (a swell) on deep water. We observed qualitative coincidence of the results. To achieve quantitative coincidence, we augmented the kinetic equation by an empirical dissipation term modelling the strongly nonlinear process of white-capping. Fitting the two experiments, we determined the dissipation function due to wave breaking and found that it depends very sharply on the parameter of nonlinearity (the surface steepness). The onset of white-capping can be compared to a second-order phase transition. This result corroborates with experimental observations by Banner, Babanin, Young.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures, Submitted in Phys. Rev. Letter

    Symmetry Induced 4-Wave Capillary Wave Turbulence

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    We report theoretical and experimental results on 4-wave capillary wave turbulence. A system consisting of two inmiscible and incompressible fluids of the same density can be written in a Hamiltonian way for the conjugated pair (ő∑,ő®)(\eta,\Psi). When given the symmetry z‚Üí‚ąízz\to-z, the set of weakly non-linear interacting waves display a Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectrum nk‚ąľk‚ąí4n_k\sim k^{-4} in wave vector space. The wave system was studied experimentally with two inmiscible fluids of almost equal densities (water and silicon oil) where the capillary surface waves are excited by a low frequency random forcing. The power spectral density (PSD) and probability density function (PDF) of the local wave amplitude are studied. Both theoretical and experimental results are in fairly good agreement with each other.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figure

    New multidimensional partially integrable generalization of S-integrable N-wave equation

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    This paper develops a modification of the dressing method based on the inhomogeneous linear integral equation with integral operator having nonempty kernel. Method allows one to construct the systems of multidimensional Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) having the differential polynomial forms in any dimension n. Associated solution space is not full, although it is parametrized by a certain number of arbitrary functions of (n-1)-variables. We consider 4-dimensional generalization of the classical (2+1)-dimensional S-integrable N-wave equation as an example.Comment: 38 page

    Quantum Many-Body Dynamics of Dark Solitons in Optical Lattices

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    We present a fully quantum many-body treatment of dark solitons formed by ultracold bosonic atoms in one-dimensional optical lattices. Using time-evolving block decimation to simulate the single-band Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian, we consider the quantum dynamics of density and phase engineered dark solitons as well as the quantum evolution of mean-field dark solitons injected into the quantum model. The former approach directly models how one may create quantum entangled dark solitons in experiment. While we have already presented results regarding the latter approach elsewhere [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 103}, 140403 (2009)], we expand upon those results in this work. In both cases, quantum fluctuations cause the dark soliton to fill in and may induce an inelasticity in soliton-soliton collisions. Comparisons are made to the Bogoliubov theory which predicts depletion into an anomalous mode that fills in the soliton. Our many-body treatment allows us to go beyond the Bogoliubov approximation and calculate explicitly the dynamics of the system's natural orbitals.Comment: 14 pages, 11 figures -- v3 has only minor changes from v2 -- this is the print versio

    Turbulent flow in graphene

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    We demonstrate the possibility of a turbulent flow of electrons in graphene in the hydrodynamic region, by calculating the corresponding turbulent probability density function. This is used to calculate the contribution of the turbulent flow to the conductivity within a quantum Boltzmann approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the system parameters arising from the turbulent flow is very different from that due to scattering.Comment: 4 pages, Latex file, Journal versio

    Weak Wave Turbulence Scaling Theory for Diffusion and Relative Diffusion in Turbulent Surface Waves

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    We examine the applicability of the weak wave turbulence theory in explaining experimental scaling results obtained for the diffusion and relative diffusion of particles moving on turbulent surface waves. For capillary waves our theoretical results are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results, where a distinct crossover in diffusive behavior is observed at the driving frequency. For gravity waves our results are discussed in the light of ocean wave studies.Comment: 5 pages; for related work visit http://www.imedea.uib.es/~victo

    Collapse and stable self-trapping for Bose-Einstein condensates with 1/r^b type attractive interatomic interaction potential

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    We consider dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates with long-range attractive interaction proportional to 1/rb1/r^b and arbitrary angular dependence. It is shown exactly that collapse of Bose-Einstein condensate without contact interactions is possible only for b‚Č•2b\ge 2. Case b=2b=2 is critical and requires number of particles to exceed critical value to allow collapse. Critical collapse in that case is strong one trapping into collapsing region a finite number of particles. Case b>2b>2 is supercritical with expected weak collapse which traps rapidly decreasing number of particles during approach to collapse. For b<2b<2 singularity at r=0r=0 is not strong enough to allow collapse but attractive 1/rb1/r^b interaction admits stable self-trapping even in absence of external trapping potential

    On the relationship between nonlinear equations integrable by the method of characteristics and equations associated with commuting vector fields

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    It was shown recently that Frobenius reduction of the matrix fields reveals interesting relations among the nonlinear Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) integrable by the Inverse Spectral Transform Method (SS-integrable PDEs), linearizable by the Hoph-Cole substitution (CC-integrable PDEs) and integrable by the method of characteristics (ChCh-integrable PDEs). However, only two classes of SS-integrable PDEs have been involved: soliton equations like Korteweg-de Vries, Nonlinear Shr\"odinger, Kadomtsev-Petviashvili and Davey-Stewartson equations, and GL(N,\CC) Self-dual type PDEs, like Yang-Mills equation. In this paper we consider the simple five-dimensional nonlinear PDE from another class of SS-integrable PDEs, namely, scalar nonlinear PDE which is commutativity condition of the pair of vector fields. We show its origin from the (1+1)-dimensional hierarchy of ChCh-integrable PDEs after certain composition of Frobenius type and differential reductions imposed on the matrix fields. Matrix generalization of the above scalar nonlinear PDE will be derived as well.Comment: 14 pages, 1 figur

    Observation of nonlinear dispersion relation and spatial statistics of wave turbulence on the surface of a fluid

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    We report experiments on gravity-capillary wave turbulence on the surface of a fluid. The wave amplitudes are measured simultaneously in time and space using an optical method. The full space-time power spectrum shows that the wave energy is localized on several branches in the wave-vector-frequency space. The number of branches depend on the power injected within the waves. The measurement of the nonlinear dispersion relation is found to be well described by a law suggesting that the energy transfer mechanisms involved in wave turbulence are not only restricted to purely resonant interaction between nonlinear waves. The power-law scaling of the spatial spectrum and the probability distribution of the wave amplitudes at a given wave number are also measured and compared to the theoretical predictions.Comment: accepted to Phys. Rev. Lett
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