3,217 research outputs found

    From the social learning theory to a social learning algorithm for global optimization

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    Traditionally, the Evolutionary Computation (EC) paradigm is inspired by Darwinian evolution or the swarm intelligence of animals. Bandura's Social Learning Theory pointed out that the social learning behavior of humans indicates a high level of intelligence in nature. We found that such intelligence of human society can be implemented by numerical computing and be utilized in computational algorithms for solving optimization problems. In this paper, we design a novel and generic optimization approach that mimics the social learning process of humans. Emulating the observational learning and reinforcement behaviors, a virtual society deployed in the algorithm seeks the strongest behavioral patterns with the best outcome. This corresponds to searching for the best solution in solving optimization problems. Experimental studies in this paper showed the appealing search behavior of this human intelligence-inspired approach, which can reach the global optimum even in ill conditions. The effectiveness and high efficiency of the proposed algorithm has further been verified by comparing to some representative EC algorithms and variants on a set of benchmarks

    A review of postharvest approaches to reduce fungal and mycotoxin contamination of foods

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    Contamination of agricultural and food products by some fungi species that produce mycotoxins can result in unsafe food and feed. Mycotoxins have been demonstrated to have disease-causing activities, including carcinogenicity, immune toxicity, teratogenicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Most of mycotoxins are heat stable and cannot be easily destroyed by conventional thermal food processing or domestic cooking methods. Postharvest approaches to prevent growth of mycotoxin-producing fungi and detoxify mycotoxins from contaminated food are important topics in food safety research. Physical, chemical, and biological methods have been applied to prevent fungal growth or mycotoxin production, or to reduce mycotoxin content in the postharvest period and contribute toward mitigating against the effects of mycotoxins on human health. This literature review aims to evaluate postharvest approaches that have been applied to control both fungi growth and mycotoxin content in food and discuss their potential for upscaling to industrial scale

    Approximate minimum BER power allocation for MIMO-THP system

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    This paper proposes a transmit power allocation (TPA) scheme based on multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Tomlinson-Harashima precoding (THP) structure, where a TPA matrix is introduced to the conventional MIMO-THP. We analyze the influence of the introduced TPA matrix on the performance of MIMO-THP. The proposed TPA scheme invokes the minimum average uncoded bit-error rate (BER) criterion subjected to a sum-power constraint. During the derivation, we consider the effects of precoding loss factor on the TPA scheme and obtain a closed-form expression of the TPA. Compared to existing TPA methods for MIMO-THP systems, the proposed scheme reduces processing complexity and improves the BER performance

    Measuring Trade Advantages of the Qualifying Industrial Zones Program of Jordan and Egypt Offered by the United States for Having Signed Peace Treaties with Israel

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    This paper uses detailed cross country and over time data to show that despite various limitations, the QIZs of Jordan and subsequently Egypt, along with certain US FTAs, have contributed significantly to an increase in participating countries’ shares of exports to the US in the nine most common categories of clothing items for which the effects of tariff and quota exemptions are likely to be strongest. These influences, although perhaps diminishing after a certain period of time, are stronger than those of exchange rate, transport cost and changes in openness over time. What is perhaps most surprising is that these effects are quite clearly discernable even in the case of Jordan despite its lack of relevant raw materials and prior industrial experience. The results also demonstrate the very significant effects exercised by quotas and their phasing out on the changing country shares in US imports of the selected commodities