3,016 research outputs found

    A multi-wavelength observation and investigation of six infrared dark clouds

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    Context. Infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) are ubiquitous in the Milky Way, yet they play a crucial role in breeding newly-formed stars. Aims. With the aim of further understanding the dynamics, chemistry, and evolution of IRDCs, we carried out multi-wavelength observations on a small sample. Methods. We performed new observations with the IRAM 30 m and CSO 10.4 m telescopes, with tracers HCO+{\rm HCO^+}, HCN, N2H+{\rm N_2H^+}, C18O{\rm C^{18}O}, DCO+^+, SiO, and DCN toward six IRDCs G031.97+00.07, G033.69-00.01, G034.43+00.24, G035.39-00.33, G038.95-00.47, and G053.11+00.05. Results. We investigated 44 cores including 37 cores reported in previous work and seven newly-identified cores. Toward the dense cores, we detected 6 DCO+^+, and 5 DCN lines. Using pixel-by-pixel spectral energy distribution (SED) fits of the Herschel\textit{Herschel} 70 to 500 μ\mum, we obtained dust temperature and column density distributions of the IRDCs. We found that N2H+{\rm N_2H^+} emission has a strong correlation with the dust temperature and column density distributions, while C18O{\rm C^{18}O} showed the weakest correlation. It is suggested that N2H+{\rm N_2H^+} is indeed a good tracer in very dense conditions, but C18O{\rm C^{18}O} is an unreliable one, as it has a relatively low critical density and is vulnerable to freezing-out onto the surface of cold dust grains. The dynamics within IRDCs are active, with infall, outflow, and collapse; the spectra are abundant especially in deuterium species. Conclusions. We observe many blueshifted and redshifted profiles, respectively, with HCO+{\rm HCO^+} and C18O{\rm C^{18}O} toward the same core. This case can be well explained by model "envelope expansion with core collapse (EECC)".Comment: 24 pages, 11 figures, 4 tables. To be published in A&A. The resolutions of the pictures are cut dow

    Transforming growth factor-β in graft vessels: histology and immunohistochemistry

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    OBJECTIVES: The biological functions of transforming growth factor-β signaling that involves Smad proteins have not been previously investigated with respect to coronary artery bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to observe the immunostaining of proteins that are related to this signaling pathway. METHODS: Fifteen remnants of coronary artery bypass grafts, including nine saphenous veins, three radial arteries and three mammary arteries, were collected from 12 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining of transforming growth factor-β1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-β, Smad2/3, Smad4, and Smad7 were performed. RESULTS: The saphenous veins showed more severe intimal degeneration, more severe smooth muscle cell proliferation and more collagen deposition than the arterial grafts, as evidenced by hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stainings. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that the majority of the transforming growth factor-β1 signaling cytokines were primarily localized in the cytoplasm in the medial layers of all three types of grafts, whereas ectopic transforming growth factor-β1, type I receptor of transforming growth factor-β, and Smad7 overexpressions in the interstices were observed particularly in the saphenous vein and radial arterial grafts. CONCLUSION: Enhanced transforming growth factor-β1 signal transduction with medial smooth muscle cell proliferation and ectopic transforming growth factor-β1, the presence of the type I receptor of transforming growth factor-β, and Smad7 overexpressions in the extracellular matrix may provide primary evidence for early or late graft failure