24 research outputs found

    Summary results of meta-analysis by hemostatic markers.

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    <p>AF, atrial fibrillation; MPV, mean platelet volume; PF-4, platelet factor 4; BTG, β-thromboglobulin; P-sel, P-selectin; Fib, fibrinogen; TAT, thrombin—antithrombin; F1+2, prothombin fragments 1+2; AT- III, Antithrombin III; tPA, tissue plasminogen activator; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; vWf, vonWillebrand factor; sTM, soluble thrombomodulin; SMD, standardized mean difference; CI, confidence interval.</p><p>Summary results of meta-analysis by hemostatic markers.</p

    Association between fibrinolytic function makers and AF.

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    <p>A. Tissue-type plasminogen activator and AF; B. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and AF. Forest plots of SMD and overall SMD with 95% CI between AF cases and controls. Black diamonds indicate the SMD, with the size of the square inversely proportional to its variance, and horizontal lines represent the 95% CI. The pooled results are indicated by the black hollow diamond. AF, atrial fibrillation; tPA, tissue-type plasminogen activator; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; SMD, standardized mean difference.</p

    Association between coagulation activation markers and AF.

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    <p>A. D-dimer and AF; B. fibrinogen and AF; C. Thrombin-antithrombin and AF; D. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 and AF; E. Antithrombin- III and AF. Forest plots of SMD and overall SMD with 95% CI between AF cases and controls. Black diamonds indicate the SMD, with the size of the square inversely proportional to its variance, and horizontal lines represent the 95% CI. The pooled results are indicated by the black hollow diamond. AF, atrial fibrillation; TAT, thrombin-antithrombin; F1+2, prothrombin fragment 1+2; AT- III, antithrombin- III; PAF, paroxysmal AF; PeAF, persistent AF; PtAF, permanent AF; CAF, chronic AF; aAF, acute AF; SMD, standardized mean difference.</p

    Association between endothelial function markers and AF.

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    <p>A. Von Willebrand factor and AF; B. Soluble thrombomodulin and AF. Forest plots of SMD and overall SMD with 95% CI between AF cases and controls. Black diamonds indicate the SMD, with the size of the square inversely proportional to its variance, and horizontal lines represent the 95% CI. The pooled results are indicated by the black hollow diamond. AF, atrial fibrillation; vWf, von Willebrand factor; sTM, soluble thrombomodulin; PAF, paroxysmal AF; PeAF, persistent AF; PtAF, permanent AF; CAF, chronic AF; aAF, acute AF; SMD, standardized mean difference.</p

    Association between platelet activation markers and AF.

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    <p>A. platelet count and AF; B. Mean platelet volume and AF; C. Platelet factor-4 and AF; D. β-thromboglobulin and AF; E. P-selectin and AF. Forest plots of SMD and overall SMD with 95% CI between AF cases and controls. Black diamonds indicate the SMD, with the size of the square inversely proportional to its variance, and horizontal lines represent the 95% CI. The pooled results are indicated by the black hollow diamond. AF, atrial fibrillation; MPV, mean platelet volume; PF-4, platelet factor-4; BTG, β-thromboglobulin; PAF, paroxysmal AF; PeAF, persistent AF; PtAF, permanent AF; CAF, chronic AF; SMD, standardized mean difference.</p

    Expression of HMGB1, TLR2 and TLR4 in livers of infants with biliary atresia (BA) and in bile ducts of mice challenged with RRV.

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    <p>(<b>A</b>) Paraffin sections of liver tissues from infants at the time of operation for congenital dilation of the bile duct (CDB) (N = 5) or BA (N = 9) immunostained with anti-HMGB1, anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 antibody. Brown staining represents positive signals. The scale bar = 20 µm. (<b>B</b>) Protein levels of HMGB1, TLR2 and TLR4 detected by western blotting in liver tissues from patients with CDB or BA. The protein levels are normalized to β-actin. (<b>C</b>) mRNA levels of HMGB1, TLR2 and TLR4 detected by realtime RT-PCR. The data are normalized to <i>GAPDH</i>. (<b>D</b>) All mice were injected with 50 µl vehicle medium or 50 µl RRV supernatant intraperitoneally within 12 hours after birth and were euthanized 7 days later. Paraffin sections of livers were immunostained with anti-HMGB1, anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 antibody. The scale bar = 15 µm. (<b>E, F</b> and <b>G</b>) mRNA levels of HMGB1, TLR2 and TLR4 in livers were detected by realtime RT-PCR. The data are normalized to <i>GAPDH</i>. *<i>p</i><0.05, **<i>p</i><0.01; N = 7–16 mice per group. The values were expressed as mean ± SD.</p

    Expression of total and phosphorylated p38, ERK and JNK.

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    <p>(<b>A</b>) Specific bands of p38, p-p38, ERK, p-ERK, JNK and p-JNK of NK cells derived from adult wild-type B10 mice and <i>Tlr4</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice were detected. NK cells were stimulated with HMGB1 or un-stimulated. (<b>B</b>–<b>G</b>) Fold changes of total and phosphorylated p38, ERK and JNK of NK cells derived from wild-type B10 mice and <i>Tlr4</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice were quantified. (<b>H</b>) Specific bands of p38, p-p38, ERK, p-ERK, JNK and p-JNK of NK cells derived from adult wild-type B6 mice and <i>Tlr2</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice were detected. (<b>I</b>–<b>N</b>) Relative protein levels of total and phosphorylated p38, ERK and JNK of NK cells derived from wild-type B6 mice and <i>Tlr2</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice were quantified. *<i>p</i><0.05, **<i>p</i><0.01; N = 5 mice per group. The protein levels are normalized to internal β-Tubulin controls and expressed as mean ± SD.</p

    Adoptive transfer of mature NK cells decreases the incidence of BA and improves survival, and the level of VP4 in cholangiocytes and the incidence of BA are decreased as the age of mice increases.

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    <p>(<b>A</b>) The expression of CD69, TNF-α and IFN-γ of NK cells derived from the livers of B6 mice in different age groups was detected by flow cytometry (N = 5) at 24 hours after RRV challenge and the analysis of incidence of BA (N = 11–16). (<b>B</b> and <b>C</b>) RRV challenge was performed in mice of different age groups (N = 5). The protein and mRNA levels of VP4 in the bile ducts were detected by ELISA and realtime RT-PCR at different time points. The values of protein were expressed as mean ng/mg per bile duct weight ± SD. (<b>D</b>) The mRNA levels of HMGB1 in the bile ducts (N = 5 per group) were detected by realtime RT-PCR and are normalized to <i>GAPDH</i>. (<b>E</b>) Histopathological changes of bile ducts in different age groups on different days post-infection. The arrows indicate infiltrated inflammatory cells. The arrow heads indicate injured cholangiocytes. The scale bar = 50 µm. (<b>F</b>) Transferred EGFP-NK cells (white arrows) were found in the liver of recipient newborn B6 mice infected by RRV. The scale bar = 30 µm. (<b>G</b>) The upper panels show gel images representing EGFP mRNA levels in the livers by RT-PCR. The lower panel shows quantitative analysis of EGFP mRNA by realtime RT-PCR. **<i>p</i><0.01. The data of mRNA levels are normalized to <i>β-actin</i>. (<b>H</b>) The summary of distribution of biliary injury grading. Each dot represents an individual mouse pup. The scale bar = 50 µm. (<b>I</b>) Survival analysis of mice subjected to different treatment (N = 8–16). **<i>p</i><0.01.</p

    Roles of TLR2, TLR4 and MAPK families in HMGB1-induced activation of NK cells.

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    <p>(<b>A</b> and <b>C</b>) Flow cytometric analyses of activation markers on <i>Tlr2</i><sup>−/−</sup> and <i>Tlr4</i><sup>−/−</sup> NK cells (CD49b<sup>+</sup>) stimulated by HMGB1. NK cells were derived from livers of adult <i>Tlr2</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice, <i>Tlr4</i><sup>−/−</sup> mice and their wild-type controls. All NK cells in this experiment were stimulated by HMGB1. Data are shown as representative dot plots and the values in the right-upper quadrant represent percent cells positive for CD49b and activation markers of NK cells, and the average percentages of activation marker positive NK cells are shown in <b>B</b> and <b>D</b>. (<b>E</b>) Flow cytometric analyses of activation markers on HMGB1 stimulated CD49b<sup>+</sup> NK cells under blockade of p38, JNK or ERK. All NK cells were derived from adult wild-type B6 mice. Values in the right-upper quadrant represent percent cells positive for CD49b and activation markers of NK cells and the average percentages of activation-marker positive NK cells are shown in <b>F</b>. *<i>p</i><0.05, **<i>p</i><0.01; N = 5 mice per group. The values are expressed as mean ± SD.</p
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