320 research outputs found

    Hospital treatment, mortality and healthcare costs in relation to socioeconomic status among people with bipolar affective disorder

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the relationships between the socioeconomic status and long-term outcomes of individuals with bipolar affective disorder (BPD) is lacking. AIMS: We aimed to estimate the effects of baseline socioeconomic status on longitudinal outcomes. METHOD: A national cohort of adult participants with newly diagnosed BPD was identified in 2008. The effects of personal and household socioeconomic status were explored on outcomes of hospital treatment, mortality and healthcare costs, over a 3-year follow-up period (2008–2011). RESULTS: A total of 7987 participants were recruited. The relative risks of hospital treatment and mortality were found elevated for the ones from low-income households who also had higher healthcare costs. Low premium levels did not correlate with future healthcare costs. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with poorer outcome and higher healthcare costs in BPD patients. Special care should be given to those with lower socioeconomic status to improve outcomes with potential benefits of cost savings in the following years. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: None. COPYRIGHT AND USAGE: © 2016 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence

    Antidiabetic effect and mode of action of cytopiloyne

    Get PDF
    Cytopiloyne was identified as a novel polyacetylenic compound. However, its antidiabetic properties are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effect and mode of action of cytopiloyne on type 2 diabetes (T2D). We first evaluated the therapeutic effect of cytopiloyne on T2D in db/db mice. We found that one dose of cytopiloyne reduced postprandial glucose levels while increasing blood insulin levels. Accordingly, long-term treatment with cytopiloyne reduced postprandial blood glucose levels, increased blood insulin, improved glucose tolerance, suppressed the level of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and protected pancreatic islets in db/db mice. Next, we studied the anti-diabetic mechanism of action of cytopiloyne. We showed that cytopiloyne failed to decrease blood glucose in streptozocin- (STZ-)treated mice whose β cells were already destroyed. Additionally, cytopiloyne dose dependently increased insulin secretion and expression in β cells. The increase of insulin secretion/expression of cytopiloyne was regulated by protein kinase C α (PKC α ) and its activators, calcium, and diacylglycerol (DAG). Overall, our data suggest that cytopiloyne treats T2D via regulation of insulin production involving the calcium/DAG/PKC α cascade in β cells. These data thus identify the molecular mechanism of action of cytopiloyne and prove its therapeutic potential in T2D

    Construction and Characterization of Insect Cell-Derived Influenza VLP: Cell Binding, Fusion, and EGFP Incorporation

    Get PDF
    We have constructed virus-like particles (VLPs) harboring hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), matrix protein 1 (M1) ,and proton channel protein (M2) using baculovirus as a vector in the SF9 insect cell. The size of the expressed VLP was estimated to be ~100 nm by light scattering experiment and transmission electron microscopy. Recognition of HA on the VLP surface by the HA2-specific monoclonal antibody IIF4 at acidic pH, as probed by surface plasmon resonance, indicated the pH-induced structural rearrangement of HA. Uptake of the particle by A549 mediated by HA-sialylose receptor interaction was visualized by the fluorescent-labeled VLP. The HA-promoted cell-virus fusion activity was illustrated by fluorescence imaging on the Jurkat cells incubated with rhodamine-loaded VLP performed at fusogenic pH. Furthermore, the green fluorescence protein (GFP) was fused to NA to produce VLP with a pH-sensitive probe, expanding the use of VLP as an antigen carrier and a tool for viral tracking

    Functionalization of zirconia ceramic with fibronectin proteins enhanced bioactivity and osteogenic response of osteoblast-like cells

    Get PDF
    Introduction: To overcome the genuine bioinert properties of zirconia ceramic, functionalization of the surface with the bioactive protein fibronectin was conducted.Methods: Glow discharge plasma (GDP)-Argon was first used to clean the zirconia surface. Then allylamine was treated at three different powers of 50 W, 75 W, and 85 W and immersed into 2 different fibronectin concentrations (5 µg/ml and 10 µg/ml).Results and Discussion: After surface treatment, irregularly folded protein-like substances were attached on the fibronectin coated disks, and a granular pattern was observed for allylamine grafted samples. Infrared spectroscopy detected C-O, N-O, N-H, C-H, and O-H functional groups for fibronectin treated samples. Surface roughness rose and hydrophilicity improved after the surface modification, with MTT assay showing the highest level of cell viability for the A50F10 group. Cell differentiation markers also showed that fibronectin grafted disks with A50F10 and A85F10 were the most active, which in turn encouraged late-stage mineralization activity on 21d. Up-regulation of osteogenic related mRNA expression from 1d to 10d can be observed in RT-qPCR data for ALP, OC, DLX5, SP7, OPG and RANK biomarkers. These physical and biological properties clearly indicate that an allylamine and fibronectin composite grafted surface significantly stimulated the bioactivity of osteoblast-like cells, and can be utilized for future dental implant applications

    Hospital treatment, mortality and healthcare costs in relation to socioeconomic status among people with bipolar affective disorder

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the relationships between the socioeconomic status and long-term outcomes of individuals with bipolar affective disorder (BPD) is lacking. AIMS: We aimed to estimate the effects of baseline socioeconomic status on longitudinal outcomes. METHOD: A national cohort of adult participants with newly diagnosed BPD was identified in 2008. The effects of personal and household socioeconomic status were explored on outcomes of hospital treatment, mortality and healthcare costs, over a 3-year follow-up period (2008–2011). RESULTS: A total of 7987 participants were recruited. The relative risks of hospital treatment and mortality were found elevated for the ones from low-income households who also had higher healthcare costs. Low premium levels did not correlate with future healthcare costs. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic deprivation is associated with poorer outcome and higher healthcare costs in BPD patients. Special care should be given to those with lower socioeconomic status to improve outcomes with potential benefits of cost savings in the following years. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: None. COPYRIGHT AND USAGE: © 2016 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence

    Viral load and clinical features in children infected with seasonal influenza B in 2006/2007

    Get PDF
    Background/PurposeIn influenza B infection, viral load is believed to be related to the severity of clinical illness. The correlation between viral load and symptoms is not known. We conducted a study to assess the relationship between virus load and clinical features in children infected with influenza B, in the hope that clinical features could be used as surrogate markers of viral load to guide treatment.MethodsBetween December 2006 and February 2007, 228 patients with fever and respiratory symptoms were prospectively enrolled in our tertiary hospital-based study. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine viral load.ResultsReal-time RT-PCR was positive for influenza B in 76 patients. Using virus culture as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 87%, respectively. Influenza culture positive rate significantly correlated with viral load (p = 0.03). The median copy number of influenza B virus in the 76 RT-PCR positive patients was 9735 copies/ml (range 4.8×101–2.0×106 copies/ml). Samples obtained later in the clinical course tended to have lower viral load (p = 0.7), while patient age (p = 0.72) and fever duration (p = 0.96) positively related to viral load. In patients >3 years of age, myalgia was related to statistically lower viral loads (14300 vs. 1180; p = 0.025). Patients with chills tended to have higher viral loads (72450 vs. 7640; p = 0.1). Patients with abdominal pain tended to have lower viral loads (1998 vs. 12550; p = 0.06).ConclusionCulture rate positively correlated with viral load. Patients with myalgia had a lower viral load

    Lessons Learned of NSPO’s Picosatellite Mission: Yamsat - 1A, 1B & 1C

    Get PDF
    The YamSat is the first developed picosatellite in National Space Program Office’s (NSPO), Taiwan, R.O.C. It is scheduled to flight in the CubeSat launch in 2003. The rapid-prototyping system engineering different from the past formal discipline opens a new satellite development model in NSPO. The YamSat Test Readiness Review Meeting was successfully held in January 2002 and the environmental tests were completed by end March 2002. Besides the breadboard model and engineering test bed to prove of operation concept are built, three YamSats (1A, 1B, & 1C) instead of one are manufactured with slightly different configurations and purposes. The YamSat- 1A is for flight with ambitious and novel R.O.C. made components, including 15 domestic organizations and companies’ participation. The YamSat-1B is basically for backup purpose and demonstration, whereas the YamSat-1C is for amateur communication experiment end-to-end field test, and for public education purpose. This new experience gives fruitful lessons learned and provides low cost space experimentation and education to the next built picosatellites in Taiwan’s universities. Detailed mission and lessons learned are addressed in this paper

    The genome sequence of the orchid Phalaenopsis equestris

    Get PDF
    Orchidaceae, renowned for its spectacular flowers and other reproductive and ecological adaptations, is one of the most diverse plant families. Here we present the genome sequence of the tropical epiphytic orchid Phalaenopsis equestris, a frequently used parent species for orchid breeding. P. equestris is the first plant with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for which the genome has been sequenced. Our assembled genome contains 29,431 predicted protein-coding genes. We find that contigs likely to be underassembled, owing to heterozygosity, are enriched for genes that might be involved in self-incompatibility pathways. We find evidence for an orchid-specific paleopolyploidy event that preceded the radiation of most orchid clades, and our results suggest that gene duplication might have contributed to the evolution of CAM photosynthesis in P. equestris. Finally, we find expanded and diversified families of MADS-box C/D-class, B-class AP3 and AGL6-class genes, which might contribute to the highly specialized morphology of orchid flowers. (Résumé d'auteur

    A population study on the association between leisure time physical activity and self-rated health among diabetics in Taiwan

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>There is strong evidence for the beneficial effects of physical activity in diabetes. There has been little research demonstrating a dose-response relationship between physical activity and self-rated health in diabetics. The aim of this study was to explore the dose-response association between leisure time physical activity and self-rated health among diabetics in Taiwan.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Data came from the 2001 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Inclusion criteria were a physician confirmed diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and age 18 years and above (n = 797). Self-rated health was assessed by the question "In general, would you say that your health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?" Individuals with a self perceived health status of good, very good, or excellent were considered to have positive health status.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In the full model, the odds ratio (OR) for positive health was 2.51(95% CI = 1.53-4.13), 1.62(95% CI = 0.93-2.84), and 1.35(95% CI = 0.77-2.37), for those with a total weekly energy expenditure of ≥ 1000 kcal, between 500 and 999 kcal, and between 1 and 499 kcal, respectively, compared to inactive individuals. Those with duration over 10 years (OR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.30-0.94), heart disease (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.30-0.85), and dyslipidemia (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.43-0.98) were less likely to have positive health than their counterparts. After stratified participants by duration, those with a duration of diabetes < 6 years, the adjusted OR for positive health was 1.95(95% CI = 1.02-3.72), 1.22(95% CI = 0.59-2.52), and 1.19(95% CI = 0.58-2.41) for those with a total weekly energy expenditure of ≥ 1000 kcal, between 500 and 999 kcal, and between 1 and 499 kcal, respectively, compared to inactive individuals. In participants with a duration of diabetes ≥ 6 years, total energy expenditure showed a gradient effect on self-perceived positive health. The adjusted OR for positive health was 3.45(95% CI = 1.53-7.79), 2.77(95% CI = 1.11-6.92), and 1.90(95% CI = 0.73-4.94) for those with a total weekly energy expenditure of ≥ 1000 kcal, between 500 and 999 kcal, and between 1 and 499 kcal, respectively, compared to inactive individuals.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Our results highlight that regular leisure activity with an energy expenditure ≧ 500 kcal per week is associated with better self-rated health for those with longstanding diabetes.</p

    Genome-Wide Association Study of Young-Onset Hypertension in the Han Chinese Population of Taiwan

    Get PDF
    Young-onset hypertension has a stronger genetic component than late-onset counterpart; thus, the identification of genes related to its susceptibility is a critical issue for the prevention and management of this disease. We carried out a two-stage association scan to map young-onset hypertension susceptibility genes. The first-stage analysis, a genome-wide association study, analyzed 175 matched case-control pairs; the second-stage analysis, a confirmatory association study, verified the results at the first stage based on a total of 1,008 patients and 1,008 controls. Single-locus association tests, multilocus association tests and pair-wise gene-gene interaction tests were performed to identify young-onset hypertension susceptibility genes. After considering stringent adjustments of multiple testing, gene annotation and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) quality, four SNPs from two SNP triplets with strong association signals (−log10(p)>7) and 13 SNPs from 8 interactive SNP pairs with strong interactive signals (−log10(p)>8) were carefully re-examined. The confirmatory study verified the association for a SNP quartet 219 kb and 495 kb downstream of LOC344371 (a hypothetical gene) and RASGRP3 on chromosome 2p22.3, respectively. The latter has been implicated in the abnormal vascular responsiveness to endothelin-1 and angiotensin II in diabetic-hypertensive rats. Intrinsic synergy involving IMPG1 on chromosome 6q14.2-q15 was also verified. IMPG1 encodes interphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan 1 which has cation binding capacity. The genes are novel hypertension targets identified in this first genome-wide hypertension association study of the Han Chinese population
    corecore