15 research outputs found

    The swelling and deswelling characteristics of the P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel.

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    <p>P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) is poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide-<i>co</i>-butylmethacrylate). The swelling characteristic is determined by the swelling ratio of P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel in distilled water at 5°C; the deswelling characteristic is determined by the water retention ratio of P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel in distilled water at 30°C. Error bars represent ±S.E.</p

    Effect of coating agent on seedling peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activities of the maize varieties Huang C (HC) and Mo17 after chilling stress.

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    <p>(*significant difference (a = 0.05, LSD) among treatments within the same seedling part for the same variety. Error bars represent ±S.E. For additional explanations, see <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120695#pone.0120695.g007" target="_blank">Fig. 7</a>.)</p

    Formulas of the maize seed-coating agents.

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    <p>*P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) is poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide-<i>co</i>-butylmethacrylate) and SA is salicylic acid; <b>formula 0</b> is the mixture of talc and bentonite without P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) or SA; <b>formulas 1</b> and <b>2</b> are mixtures of P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA), talc and bentonite without SA; <b>formulas 3</b> and <b>4</b> are mixtures of SA, talc and bentonite without P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA); <b>formulas 5</b> and <b>6</b> are mixtures of SA-loaded P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA), talc and bentonite. In addition, for formula 5, 1.05 g of SA-loaded P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) contained 0.1 g of P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) and 0.05 g of SA; for formula 6, 1.50 g of SA-loaded P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel contained 1 g of P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) and 0.50 g of SA.</p><p>Formulas of the maize seed-coating agents.</p

    Effect of agent on seedling growth of maize varieties Huang C (HC) and Mo17 after chilling stress.

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    <p>(<b>A</b> and <b>B</b> are Huang C; <b>C</b> and <b>D</b> are Mo17. The seedlings grew for 11 days including 5-day germination and growth at 25°C, 3-day chilling stress at 5°C and 3-day recover growth at 25°C. <b>Ck</b>. Control: maize seeds coated with formula 0; <b>J1</b>. maize seeds coated with formula 1; <b>J2</b>. maize seeds coated with formula 2; <b>S1</b>. maize seeds coated with formula 3; <b>S2</b>. maize seeds coated with formula 4; <b>J1S1</b>. maize seeds coated with formula 5; <b>J2S2</b>. maize seeds coated with formula 6. The coating agents were applied at a rate of 1 g per 5 g naked seeds for all of the treatments. For the different formulas, see the explanations in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120695#pone.0120695.t001" target="_blank">Table 1</a>.)</p

    Effect of circulative pulse temperatures on SA accumulative release from the P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel.

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    <p>P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) is poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide-<i>co</i>-butylmethacrylate) and SA is salicylic acid. SA release ratio from P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel is indicated by hollow diamond under 9°C (◇) and by solid triangle under 15°C (▲). Temperature changes between 9°C and 15°C in the form of circulative pulse. Statistical error bars are not easy to see because they are covered by the symbols.</p

    Scanning electron microscopy images of the P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel (×500).

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    <p>P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) is poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide-<i>co</i>-butylmethacrylate); ‘Surface’ and ‘Inside’ indicates the surface and inside of P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel, respectively. <b><i>a</i></b>, the inside of P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel (<b>×</b>4000).</p

    The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum of SA, the P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel and the SA-loaded P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel.

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    <p>P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) is poly (N-isopropyl acrylamide-<i>co</i>-butylmethacrylate) and SA is salicylic acid; The SA-loaded P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel is the P(NIPAm-<i>co</i>-BMA) hydrogel loaded by SA through a solvent sorption method; The absorption peaks showed in the figure indicate special chemical bonds or functional groups. The top figure is the FTIR spectrum from 400–2000 cm<sup>-1</sup> wavenumbers and the bottom figure is the FTIR spectrum from 2000–4000 cm<sup>-1</sup> wavenumbers.</p

    Effect of coating agent on seedling malondialdehyde (MDA) content of maize varieties Huang C (HC) and Mo17 after chilling stress.

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    <p>(*significant difference (a = 0.05, LSD) among treatments within the same seedling part for the same variety. Error bars represent ±S.E. For additional explanations, see <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0120695#pone.0120695.g007" target="_blank">Fig. 7</a>.)</p

    The tobacco seeds of MSYY85 pelleted with T1 method were attracted by a small magnet.

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    <p><b>Ck</b>: the control seeds pelleted without magnetic powder and fluorescent materials did not be attracted by a magnet; <b>a</b>: the seeds pelleted with T1 (2 g seeds pelleted with 15 g bentonite and 84 g blend powder which consisted of 79.6 g talc, 0.2 g fluorescein and 4.2 g magnetic powder) were attracted by a magnet; the white arrow showed a small magnet.</p
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