100 research outputs found

    Phylogenetic tree of putative <i>S</i>. <i>furcifera</i> IRs, <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i> iGluRs and IRs, and other insect IRs.

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    <p>SfurIRs are highlighted in red letters. Bmor, <i>Bombyx mori</i>; Cpom, <i>Cydia pomonella</i>; Dmel, <i>D</i>. <i>melanogaster</i>; Dple, <i>Danaus plexippus</i>; Harm, <i>Helicoverpa armigera</i>; Msex, <i>Manduca sexta</i>; Slit, <i>Spodoptera littoralis</i>; Snon, <i>Sesamia nonagrioides</i>; Ago, <i>A</i>. <i>gossypii</i>.</p

    Molecular Characterization and Differential Expression of an Olfactory Receptor Gene Family in the White-Backed Planthopper <i>Sogatella furcifera</i> Based on Transcriptome Analysis

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    <div><p>The white-backed planthopper, <i>Sogatella furcifera</i>, a notorious rice pest in Asia, employs host plant volatiles as cues for host location. In insects, odor detection is mediated by two types of olfactory receptors: odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs). In this study, we identified 63 <i>SfurORs</i> and 14 <i>SfurIRs</i> in <i>S</i>. <i>furcifera</i> based on sequences obtained from the head transcriptome and bioinformatics analysis. The motif-pattern of 130 hemiptera ORs indicated an apparent differentiation in this order. Phylogenetic trees of the ORs and IRs were constructed using neighbor-joining estimates. Most of the ORs had orthologous genes, but a specific OR clade was identified in <i>S</i>. <i>furcifera</i>, which suggests that these ORs may have specific olfactory functions in this species. Our results provide a basis for further investigations of how <i>S</i>. <i>furcifera</i> coordinates its olfactory receptor genes with its plant hosts, thereby providing a foundation for novel pest management approaches based on these genes.</p></div

    Phylogenetic tree of <i>S</i>. <i>furcifera</i> SfurORs and other hemipteran ORs.

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    <p>Species abbreviations: Ap, <i>A</i>. <i>pisum</i>; Ago, <i>A</i>. <i>gossypii</i>; Rpro, <i>R</i>. <i>prolixus</i>; Sfur, <i>S</i>. <i>furcifera</i>; Llin, <i>Lygus lineolaris</i>; Alum, <i>Apolygus lucorum</i>; Save, <i>Sitobion avenae</i>.</p

    Unigenes of candidate ionotropic receptors.

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    <p>Unigenes of candidate ionotropic receptors.</p

    A series of novel metal-organic frameworks assembled from adamantane dicarboxylates and flexible 1,2-bis(imidazole) ethane ligand: Syntheses, structures, and properties

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    <p>Four new coordination polymers have been synthesized by the combination of adamantane dicarboxylates and 1,2-bis(imidazole) ethane ligand with Cu(II)/Zn(II)/Cd(II) ions, formulated as {[Cu(Hada)<sub>2</sub>(bie)]}<sub>n</sub> (<b>1</b>), {[Zn(Hada)<sub>2</sub>(bie)]}<sub>n</sub> (<b>2</b>), {[Zn(adc)(bie)]·2H<sub>2</sub>O}<sub>n</sub> (<b>3</b>), and {[Cd(adc)(bie)]}<sub>n</sub> (<b>4</b>) (H<sub>2</sub>ada = 1,3-adamantanediacetic acid, H<sub>2</sub>adc = 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid, bie = 1,2-bis(imidazole) ethane) under hydrothermal conditions. Crystal structural analysis reveals that the structures of complexes <b>1</b> and <b>2</b> are similar, and they all exist in the 2D supramolecular network constructed by hydrogen bonding interactions. Compounds <b>3</b> and <b>4</b> possess the 2D layer structure, in which the 2D framework of <b>3</b> forms a 3D supramolecular network by hydrogen bonding. Furthermore, solid-state properties of thermal stability, luminescent properties, and X-ray powder diffractions for these crystalline materials have been investigated.</p

    Comparison of ORs (A) and IRs (B) in the head according to Illumina read mapping.

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    <p>The asterisk indicates very low values. FPKM, expected number of fragments per kilobase of transcript sequence per million base pairs sequenced.</p

    Motif analysis of ORs in the Hemipera.

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    <p>Parameters used for motif discovery were: minimum width = 6, maximum width = 10, maximum number of motif to find = 8. The upper parts listed the eight motifs discovered in the 130 ORs using MEME (version 4.9.1) on line server (<a href="http://meme.nbcr.net/meme/" target="_blank">http://meme.nbcr.net/meme/</a>). The lower parts of different colors indicate approximate locations of each motif on the predicted protein sequence. The numbers in the boxes correspond to the numbered motifs in the upper part of the figure, where small number indicates high conservation. The numbers on the bottom showed the approximate locations of each motif on the protein sequence, starting from the N-terminal.</p

    Distribution of transcripts and unigene length in the <i>S</i>. <i>furcifera</i> transcriptome assembly.

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    <p>Distribution of transcripts and unigene length in the <i>S</i>. <i>furcifera</i> transcriptome assembly.</p

    Unigenes of candidate odorant receptors.

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    <p>Unigenes of candidate odorant receptors.</p

    Molecular and Functional Characterization of Three Odorant-Binding Protein from <i>Periplaneta americana</i>

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    <div><p>The American cockroach, <i>Periplaneta americana</i>, is a vector of many pathogenic organisms associated with human diseases. Olfaction plays a crucial role in guiding cockroach behaviors and contributes to their ability to transmit pathogens. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs), abundant in the insect olfactory sensilla, are important for insect olfaction. In this study, three <i>OBP</i> genes, <i>PameOBP1</i>, <i>2</i> and <i>3</i>, were cloned from <i>P</i>. <i>americana</i>. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that PameOBP1, 2 and 3 belong to the Minus-C OBP, Classic OBP, and Plus-C OBP subfamilies, respectively. Expression pattern and ligand-binding analysis showed that <i>PameOBP1</i> and <i>2</i> were specifically expressed in antennae, and exhibited high binding affinities (Ki < 2 μM) to farnesene, farnesol, 2-tridecanone, and tetradecane, suggesting roles in volatile perception. Conversely, <i>PameOBP3</i> was ubiquitously expressed in most of the tissues examined at high levels and displayed very weak binding affinities (Ki > 40 μM) for all 87 ligands tested. Our study provides insights into the functional diversity of <i>PameOBP</i> genes and provides some volatiles that can potentially be used in behavioral interference of <i>P</i>. <i>americana</i>.</p></div
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