10,433 research outputs found

    Suppression of thermally activated escape by heating

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    The problem of thermally activated escape over a potential barrier is solved by means of path integrals for one-dimensional reaction dynamics with very general time dependences. For a suitably chosen but still quite simple static potential landscape, the net escape rate may be substantially reduced by temporally increasing the temperature above its unperturbed constant level.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Deduction of the quantum numbers of low-lying states of 6-nucleon systems based on symmetry

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    The inherent nodal structures of the wavefunctions of 6-nucleon systems have been investigated. The existence of a group of six low-lying states dominated by L=0 has been deduced. The spatial symmetries of these six states are found to be mainly {4,2} and {2,2,2}.Comment: 8 pages, no figure

    Constraining the Skyrme effective interactions and the neutron skin thickness of nuclei using isospin diffusion data from heavy ion collisions

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    Recent analysis of the isospin diffusion data from heavy-ion collisions based on an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model with in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections has led to the extraction of a value of L=88±25L=88\pm 25 MeV for the slope of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density. This imposes stringent constraints on both the parameters in the Skyrme effective interactions and the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei. Among the 21 sets of Skyrme interactions commonly used in nuclear structure studies, the 4 sets SIV, SV, Gσ_\sigma, and Rσ_\sigma are found to give LL values that are consistent with the extracted one. Further study on the correlations between the thickness of the neutron skin in finite nuclei and the nuclear matter symmetry energy in the Skyrme Hartree-Fock approach leads to predicted thickness of the neutron skin of 0.22±0.040.22\pm 0.04 fm for 208^{208}Pb, 0.29±0.040.29\pm 0.04 fm for 132^{132}Sn, and 0.22±0.040.22\pm 0.04 fm for 124^{124}Sn.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures, 1 Table, Talk given at 1) International Conference on Nuclear Structure Physics, Shanghai, 12-17 June, 2006; 2) 11th China National Nuclear Structure Physics Conference, Changchun, Jilin, 13-18 July, 200

    Breathing oscillations of a trapped impurity in a Bose gas

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    Motivated by a recent experiment [J. Catani et al., arXiv:1106.0828v1 preprint, 2011], we study breathing oscillations in the width of a harmonically trapped impurity interacting with a separately trapped Bose gas. We provide an intuitive physical picture of such dynamics at zero temperature, using a time-dependent variational approach. In the Gross-Pitaevskii regime we obtain breathing oscillations whose amplitudes are suppressed by self trapping, due to interactions with the Bose gas. Introducing phonons in the Bose gas leads to the damping of breathing oscillations and non-Markovian dynamics of the width of the impurity, the degree of which can be engineered through controllable parameters. Our results reproduce the main features of the impurity dynamics observed by Catani et al. despite experimental thermal effects, and are supported by simulations of the system in the Gross-Pitaevskii regime. Moreover, we predict novel effects at lower temperatures due to self-trapping and the inhomogeneity of the trapped Bose gas.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    Partial spin freezing in the quasi-two-dimensional La2(Cu,Li)O4

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    In conventional spin glasses, the magnetic interaction is not strongly anisotropic and the entire spin system freezes at low temperature. In La2(Cu,Li)O4, for which the in-plane exchange interaction dominates the interplane one, only a fraction of spins with antiferromagnetic correlations extending to neighboring planes become spin-glass. The remaining spins with only in-plane antiferromagnetic correlations remain spin-liquid at low temperature. Such a novel partial spin freezing out of a spin-liquid observed in this cold neutron scattering study is likely due to a delicate balance between disorder and quantum fluctuations in the quasi-two dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg system.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    The influence of nanostructure on the mechanical properties of 3D printed polylactide/nanoclay composites

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    An obstacle for wider application of 3D printed parts is their inferior mechanical performance compared with those from conventional fabrication. This research aims to overcome this deficiency by developing nanostructured PLA/clay composite filaments that are 3D printable by the FFF technique, investigating the effect of filament composition on mechanical properties, and correlating it with the extent of intercalation of different types of clay. The results showed the addition of 5 wt% organomodified clay to PLA raised the elastic and flexural modulus by 10% and 14% respectively. Einstein’s composite theory did not hold for the PLA/organoclay composites but the Halpin-Tsai model was successful in interpreting the measured moduli of the organoclays. The model also showed that increasing the clay intercalation was much more effective than raising the total clay content

    Super-soft symmetry energy encountering non-Newtonian gravity in neutron stars

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    Considering the non-Newtonian gravity proposed in the grand unification theories, we show that the stability and observed global properties of neutron stars can not rule out the super-soft nuclear symmetry energies at supra-saturation densities. The degree of possible violation of the Inverse-Square-Law of gravity in neutron stars is estimated using an Equation of State (EOS) of neutron-rich nuclear matter consistent with the available terrestrial laboratory data.Comment: Version accepted by Physical Review Letter
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