5,650 research outputs found

    Refining grain structure and porosity of an aluminium alloy with intensive melt shearing

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    The official published version of the article can be obtained at the link below.Intensive melt shearing was achieved using a twin-screw machine to condition an aluminium alloy prior to solidification. The results show that intensive melt shearing has a significant grain-refining effect. In addition, the intensive melt shearing reduces both the volume fraction and the size of porosity. It can reduce the density index from 10.50% to 2.87% and the average size of porosity in the samples solidified under partial vacuum from around 1 mm to 100 μm.Financial support was obtained from the EPSRC and the Technology Strategy Board

    A More Precise Extraction of |V_{cb}| in HQEFT of QCD

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    The more precise extraction for the CKM matrix element |V_{cb}| in the heavy quark effective field theory (HQEFT) of QCD is studied from both exclusive and inclusive semileptonic B decays. The values of relevant nonperturbative parameters up to order 1/m^2_Q are estimated consistently in HQEFT of QCD. Using the most recent experimental data for B decay rates, |V_{cb}| is updated to be |V_{cb}| = 0.0395 \pm 0.0011_{exp} \pm 0.0019_{th} from B\to D^{\ast} l \nu decay and |V_{cb}| = 0.0434 \pm 0.0041_{exp} \pm 0.0020_{th} from B\to D l \nu decay as well as |V_{cb}| = 0.0394 \pm 0.0010_{exp} \pm 0.0014_{th} from inclusive B\to X_c l \nu decay.Comment: 7 pages, revtex, 4 figure

    B(s),D(s)π,K,η,ρ,K,ω,ϕB_{(s)},D_{(s)} \to \pi, K, \eta, \rho, K^*, \omega, \phi Transition Form Factors and Decay Rates with Extraction of the CKM parameters Vub|V_{ub}|, Vcs|V_{cs}|, Vcd|V_{cd}|

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    A systematic calculation for the transition form factors of heavy to light mesons (B,Bs,D,Dsπ,K,η,ρ,K,ω,ϕB,B_s,D,D_s \to \pi, K, \eta, \rho, K^*, \omega, \phi) is carried out by using light-cone sum rules in the framework of heavy quark effective field theory. The heavy quark symmetry at the leading order of 1/mQ1/m_Q expansion enables us to reduce the independent wave functions and establish interesting relations among form factors. Some relations hold for the whole region of momentum transfer. The meson distribution amplitudes up to twist-4 including the contributions from higher conformal spin partial waves and light meson mass corrections are considered. The CKM matrix elements Vub|V_{ub}|, Vcs|V_{cs}| and Vcd|V_{cd}| are extracted from some relatively well-measured decay channels. A detailed prediction for the branching ratios of heavy to light meson decays is then presented. The resulting predictions for the semileptonic and radiative decay rates of heavy to light mesons (B,Bs,D,Dsπ,K,η,ρ,K,ω,ϕB,B_s,D,D_s \to \pi, K, \eta, \rho, K^*, \omega, \phi) are found to be compatible with the current experimental data and can be tested by more precise experiments at B-factory, LHCb, BEPCII and CLEOc.Comment: 23 pages, 32 figures, 25 tables,published version, minor corrections and references adde

    Lifetime Difference and Endpoint effect in the Inclusive Bottom Hadron Decays

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    The lifetime differences of bottom hadrons are known to be properly explained within the framework of heavy quark effective field theory(HQEFT) of QCD via the inverse expansion of the dressed heavy quark mass. In general, the spectrum around the endpoint region is not well behaved due to the invalidity of 1/mQ1/m_Q expansion near the endpoint. The curve fitting method is adopted to treat the endpoint behavior. It turns out that the endpoint effects are truly small and the explanation on the lifetime differences in the HQEFT of QCD is then well justified. The inclusion of the endpoint effects makes the prediction on the lifetime differences and the extraction on the CKM matrix element Vcb|V_{cb}| more reliable.Comment: 11 pages, Revtex, 10 figures, 6 tables, published versio

    Correlation effects in the ground state charge density of Mott-insulating NiO: a comparison of ab-initio calculations and high-energy electron diffraction measurements

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    Accurate high-energy electron diffraction measurements of structure factors of NiO have been carried out to investigate how strong correlations in the Ni 3d shell affect electron charge density in the interior area of nickel ions and whether the new ab-initio approaches to the electronic structure of strongly correlated metal oxides are in accord with experimental observations. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the local spin density approximation corrected by the Hubbard U term (LSDA+U) are found to provide the closest match to experimental measurements. The comparison of calculated and observed electron charge densities shows that correlations in the Ni 3d shell suppress covalent bonding between the oxygen and nickel sublattices.Comment: 6 pages, LaTeX and 5 figures in the postscript forma

    LeERF1 improves tolerance to drought stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and activates downstream stress-responsive genes

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    Ethylene responsive factors (ERFs) are important transcriptional regulators involved in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this study, the function of the LeERF1 gene in sense- and antisense- LeERF1 transgenic tomato plants was analyzed. The results demonstrated that overexpression of LeERF1 in tomato plants enhanced tolerance to drought stress. The LeERF1-overexpressing transgenic plants maintained higher relative water content (RWC), free proline and soluble sugar levels, and showed lower malondialdehyde (MDA) level and electrolyte leakage under drought stress, compared with wild-type and antisense-LeERF1 tomato plants. Furthermore, overexpression of LeERF1 in tomato plants activated the expression of stress-related genes, including P5CS, LEA, ltpg2 and tdi-65. These results suggested that LeERF1 played a positive role in tolerance to drought stress.Key words: LeERF1, drought tolerance, transcription factor, transgenic tomato