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    Random perturbation to the geodesic equation

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    We study random "perturbation" to the geodesic equation. The geodesic equation is identified with a canonical differential equation on the orthonormal frame bundle driven by a horizontal vector field of norm 11. We prove that the projections of the solutions to the perturbed equations, converge, after suitable rescaling, to a Brownian motion scaled by 8n(nβˆ’1){\frac{8}{n(n-1)}} where nn is the dimension of the state space. Their horizontal lifts to the orthonormal frame bundle converge also, to a scaled horizontal Brownian motion.Comment: Published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/14-AOP981 in the Annals of Probability (http://www.imstat.org/aop/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    On the Semi-Classical Brownian Bridge Measure

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    We prove an integration by parts formula for the probability measure induced by the semi-classical Riemmanian Brownian bridge over a manifold with a pole

    Limits of Random Differential Equations on Manifolds

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    Consider a family of random ordinary differential equations on a manifold driven by vector fields of the form βˆ‘kYkΞ±k(ztΟ΅(Ο‰))\sum_kY_k\alpha_k(z_t^\epsilon(\omega)) where YkY_k are vector fields, Ο΅\epsilon is a positive number, ztΟ΅z_t^\epsilon is a 1Ο΅L0{1\over \epsilon} {\mathcal L}_0 diffusion process taking values in possibly a different manifold, Ξ±k\alpha_k are annihilators of ker(L0βˆ—)ker ({\mathcal L}_0^*). Under H\"ormander type conditions on L0{\mathcal L}_0 we prove that, as Ο΅\epsilon approaches zero, the stochastic processes ytϡϡy_{t\over \epsilon}^\epsilon converge weakly and in the Wasserstein topologies. We describe this limit and give an upper bound for the rate of the convergence.Comment: 46 pages, To appear in Probability Theory and Related Fields In this version, we add a note in proof for the published versio

    Light Curve Properties of Supernovae Associated With Gamma-ray Bursts

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    Little is known about the diversity in the light curves of GRB-SNe, including whether the light curve of SN 1998bw can be used as a representative template or whether there is a luminosity-decline rate relation akin to that of SNe Ia. In this paper, we aim to obtain well-constrained light curves of GRB-SNe without the assumption of empirical or parametric templates and to investigate whether the peak brightness correlates with other parameters such as the light curve shape or the time of peak. We select eight SNe in the redshift range 0.0085 to 0.606, which are firmly associated with GRBs. The light curves of these GRB-SNe are well sampled across the peak. Afterglow and host galaxy contributions are subtracted and dust reddening is corrected for. Low-order polynomial functions are fitted to the light curves. A K-correction is applied to transform the light curves into the rest frame V band. GRB-SNe follow a luminosity-decline rate relation similar to the Phillips relation for SNe Ia, with MV,peak=1.59βˆ’0.24+0.28Ξ”mV,15βˆ’20.61βˆ’0.22+0.19M_{V,peak} = 1.59^{+0.28}_{-0.24} \Delta m_{V,15} - 20.61^{+0.19}_{-0.22}, with Ο‡2=5.2\chi^2 = 5.2 for 6 dof and MV,peakM_{V,peak} and Ξ”mV,15\Delta m_{V,15} being the peak magnitude and decline rate in V band. This luminosity-decline rate relation is tighter than the k-s relation, where k and s are the factors describing the relative brightness and width to the light curve of SN 1998bw. The peak luminosities of GRB-SNe are also correlated with the time of peak: the brighter the GRB-SN, the longer the rise time. The light curve of SN 1998bw stretched around the time of explosion can be used as a template for GRB-SNe with reasonable confidence, but stretching around the peak produces better results. The existence of such a relation provides a new constraint on GRB explosion models. GRB-SNe can be used as standardizable candles to measure cosmological distances and constrain cosmological parameters.Comment: 17 pages, 15 figures. Submitted to Astronomy & Astrophysics on July 4, 201
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