59,699 research outputs found

    A binary mixture of spinor atomic Bose-Einstein condensates

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    We study the ground state and classify its phase diagram for a mixture of two spin-1 condensates in the absence of external magnetic (B-) field according to atomic parameters for intra- and inter-species spin exchange coupling and singlet pairing interaction. Ignoring the inter-species singlet pairing interaction, the ground state phases are found analytically. Numerical approach of simulated annealing is adopted when the singlet pairing interaction is present. Our results on the phase diagram and the boundaries between phases allow for easy identifications of quantum phase transitions, that can be induced through the tuning of optical traps and atom numbers. They provide the first insight and guidance for several ongoing experiments on mixtures of spinor condensates.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Quantum entangled ground states of two spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

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    We revisit in detail the non-mean-field ground-state phase diagram for a binary mixture of spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates including quantum fluctuations. The non-commuting terms in the spin-dependent Hamiltonian under single spatial mode approximation make it difficult to obtain exact eigenstates. Utilizing the spin z-component conservation and the total spin angular momentum conservation, we numerically derive the information of the building blocks and evaluate von Neumann entropy to quantify the ground states. The mean-field phase boundaries are found to remain largely intact, yet the ground states show fragmented and entangled behaviors within large parameter spaces of interspecies spin-exchange and singlet-pairing interactions.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figure

    Quantum spin mixing in a binary mixture of spin-1 atomic condensates

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    We study quantum spin mixing in a binary mixture of spin-1 condensates including coherent interspecies mixing process, using the familiar spinor condensates of 87^{87}Rb and 23^{23}Na atoms in the ground lower hyperfine F=1 manifolds as prototype examples. Within the single spatial mode approximation for each of the two spinor condensates, the mixing dynamics reduce to that of three coupled nonlinear pendulums with clear physical interpretations. Using suitably prepared initial states, it is possible to determine the interspecies singlet-pairing as well as spin-exchange interactions from the subsequent mixing dynamics.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figure

    Searching for high-KK isomers in the proton-rich A80A\sim80 mass region

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    Configuration-constrained potential-energy-surface calculations have been performed to investigate the KK isomerism in the proton-rich A80A\sim80 mass region. An abundance of high-KK states are predicted. These high-KK states arise from two and four-quasi-particle excitations, with Kπ=8+K^{\pi}=8^{+} and Kπ=16+K^{\pi}=16^{+}, respectively. Their excitation energies are comparatively low, making them good candidates for long-lived isomers. Since most nuclei under studies are prolate spheroids in their ground states, the oblate shapes of the predicted high-KK states may indicate a combination of KK isomerism and shape isomerism

    Quantum states of a binary mixture of spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

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    We study the structure of quantum states for a binary mixture of spin-1 atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. In contrast to collision between identical bosons, the s-wave scattering channel between inter-species does not conform to a fixed symmetry. The spin-dependent Hamiltonian thus contains non-commuting terms, making the exact eigenstates more challenging to obtain because they now depend more generally on both the intra- and inter-species interactions. We discuss two limiting cases, where the spin-dependent Hamiltonian reduces respectively to sums of commuting operators. All eigenstates can then be directly constructed, and they are independent of the detailed interaction parameters.Comment: 5 pages, no figure

    Atomic number fluctuations in a mixture of two spinor condensates

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    We study particle number fluctuations in the quantum ground states of a mixture of two spin-1 atomic condensates when the interspecies spin-exchange coupling interaction c12βc_{12}\beta is adjusted. The two spin-1 condensates forming the mixture are respectively ferromagnetic and polar in the absence of an external magnetic (B-) field. We categorize all possible ground states using the angular momentum algebra and compute their characteristic atom number fluctuations, focusing especially on the the AA phase (when c12β>0 c_{12}\beta >0), where the ground state becomes fragmented and atomic number fluctuations exhibit drastically different features from a single stand alone spin-1 polar condensate. Our results are further supported by numerical simulations of the full quantum many-body system.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, in press PR

    Vacuolar ATPase depletion contributes to dysregulation of endocytosis in bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei

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    BACKGROUND Vacuolar H-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a highly conserved protein complex which hydrolyzes ATP and pumps protons to acidify vacuolar vesicles. Beyond its role in pH maintenance, the involvement of V-ATPase in endocytosis is well documented in mammals and plants but is less clear in Trypanosoma brucei. METHODS In this study, the subcellular localization of V-ATPase subunit B (TbVAB) of T. brucei was assessed via in situ N-terminal YFP-tagging and immunofluorescence assays. Transgenic bloodstream forms (BSF) of T. brucei were generated which comprised either a V-ATPase subunit B (TbVAB) conditional knockout or a V-ATPase subunit A (TbVAA) knockdown. Acridine orange and BCECF-AM were employed to assess the roles of V-ATPase in the pH regulation of BSF T. brucei. The endocytic activities of three markers were also characterized by flow cytometry analyses. Furthermore, trypanosomes were counted from trypanolysis treatment groups (either containing 1% or 5% NHS) and endocytosed trypanosome lytic factor (TLF) was also analyzed by an immunoblotting assay. RESULTS TbVAB was found to localize to acidocalcisomes, lysosomes and probably also to endosomes of BSF of T. brucei and was demonstrated to be essential for cell growth. TbVAB depletion neutralized acidic organelles at 24 hours post-tetracycline depletion (hpd), meanwhile the steady state intracellular pH increased from 7.016 ± 0.013 to 7.422 ± 0.058. Trypanosomes with TbVAB depletion at 24 hpd were found to take up more transferrin (2.068 ± 0.277 fold) but less tomato lectin (49.31 ± 22.57%) by endocytosis, while no significant change was detected in dextran uptake. Similar endocytic dysregulated phenotypes were also observed in TbVAA knockdown cells. In addition, TbVAB depleted trypanosomes showed a low uptake of TLF and exhibited less sensitive to lysis in both 1% and 5% NHS treatments. CONCLUSIONS TbVAB is a key component of V-ATPase and was found to play a key function in endocytosis as well as exhibiting different effects in a receptor/cargo dependent manner in BSF of T. brucei. Besides vacuolar alkalinization, the dysregulation of endocytosis in TbVAB depleted T. brucei is considered to contribute to the reduced sensitivity to lysis by normal human serum
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