4,420 research outputs found

    Public service employment : a review of programs in selected OECD countries and transition economies

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    This paper examines one type of program that is used by many OECD and CEEC countries (Central and Eastern European countries) to ease the pain of structural adjustment and create jobs, namely Public Service Employment (PSE). Such programs are characterized by the employment of unemployed persons, financed by the government, to provide services and/or support infrastructure development (public works). Many of those in the"non-interventionist"camp view these programs as a waste of public funds that could be used in more productive economic investments. Some of those in the"interventionist camp"also view the programs in a similar manner and feel that, while someintervention is needed, PSE programs are not an appropriate tool. However, a number of OECD and CEEC countries are implementing such programs. This report reviews and summarizes the experiences of several countries-Denmark, France, Germany, Spain, the United Kingdom, the United States, Poland, and Hungary. While not a representative sample, some of these countries heavily emphasized the use of such programs. The American program, discontinued over 15 years ago, remains relevant because this is where some of the best research has been conducted. Hungary and Poland are included because of their obvious relevance to the situation of countries in transition.Environmental Economics&Policies,ICT Policy and Strategies,Poverty Impact Evaluation,Banks&Banking Reform,Labor Standards

    What Difference Did the War Make to Japanese Nationalism?

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    新領域・次世代の日本研究, オタゴ, 2016年11月24日-25

    Medullary bone and avian osteoporosis

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    Medullary bone is a type of woven bone birds produce in response to oestrogen. It acts as a mineral reservoir for the calcium demands of egg shell formation.The morphology and distribution of medullary bone in the modern laying hen at different stages in its life was investigated and described.Modern commercial lay ing hens suffer from osteoporosis (structural bone loss), leading to bone fractures.The association between structural bone loss and medullary bone modelling and remodelling was investigated in three further studies. Bone samples were processed for examination with light microscopy and ultrastructurally. Histomorphometric techniques were used to quantify cancellous, cortical, and medullary bone volumes in undecalcified sections of samples collected from three studies.In the first of these studies, female fowl were killed either during ovarian follicular development, after laying a single egg, or half way tlirough the laying cycle. Structural bone volume decreased significantly during both medullary bone modelling and subsequent remodelling. Medullary bone volume increased significantly during the same period.In the second study, medullary bone modelling was induced in male fowl by the administration of oestrogen, and prevented in female fow l by tamoxifen. Oestradiol-trealed males had significantly lower structural bone volumes than control males, w hile tamo.xifentreated females had significantly higher structural bone volumes than control females.The final study determined the effects of the bisphosphonate alendronate on the structural bone loss associated with medullary bone modelling and remodelling. Alendronate administered before follicular development resulted in significantly greater structural bone volumes both at the onset of lay and at mid-lay than in vehicle-treated controls

    The Craft Hub Journey:Project Catalogue

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    Introducing the Craft Hub project and the International Exhibition ‘Investigating Craft Practices across Europe’, including its journey across Europe, the artistic curation and set-up methodology for a replicable, accessible and sustainable design, adapting to seven unique exhibition spaces and content. The recurring themes, Heritage, Sustainability, Experimentation, Technological Innovation, Empowerment and Social Inclusion create common threads running through the activities and research carried out by each Craft Hub partner

    A comparison of self-reported parenting behaviors for an at-risk group and a group not identified to be at-risk

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    There is much interest in parenting styles and child behaviors. This study was conducted to identify parenting behaviors that are associated with high risk for child abuse and neglect. Two groups of parents answered questions on the Home Environment Profile (HEP) and their answers were compared. One group of parents was identified to be at-risk for child abuse and/or neglect and met criteria for a child abuse prevention program. The other group was not identified to be at-risk. Analysis of the groups\u27 self-reported parenting behaviors found significant differences in the demographic information and in the area of parenting behaviors labeled consistency. No significant differences were found for the factors labeled communication and rewards. Findings from this study suggest that parenting education programs should include components on consistency, structure, and parental self-management as well as ways to work through concomitant concerns such as low income level and lack of formal education

    Modeling radiocarbon constraints on the dilution of dissolved organic carbon in the deep ocean

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    The recalcitrance of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that leads to its accumulation in the deep ocean is typically considered a function of its reactivity. Yet, recent experimental evidence has shown that DOC from the deep ocean, if concentrated, can support significant microbial growth. This supports an alternative hypothesis that [DOC] may become too dilute to support microbial growth. The radiocarbon signature of DOC is a key constraint on the DOC cycling that allows testing of the plausibility of this hypothesis. Here we use a box model of diluted DOC in the deep ocean and its radiocarbon signature that is constrained on the basis of the new experimental evidence, as well as current knowledge of deep ocean DOC cycling to quantitatively test the dilution hypothesis. We explore the uncertainty in model results across a range of plausible dilution thresholds, additional processes, and fluxes of DOC to the deep ocean. Results show that the model is able to predict the observed radiocarbon signature for a dilution threshold close to the observed deep ocean [DOC] and for fluxes close to published estimates. Sensitivity analysis shows that this result is highly sensitive to variations in the dilution threshold and the assumption that diluted DOC is able to survive ocean overturning. The experimental findings can be alternatively reconciled over a large range of different conditions assuming a small pool of diluted DOC with a modern radiocarbon signature, consistent with recent observations, and offering a parsimonious interpretation of dilution with existing hypotheses on DOC recalcitrance.SCOPUS: ar.jinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe