1,896 research outputs found

### The dynamics of thin fluid films

Not only are thin fluid films of enormous importance in numerous practical applications, including painting, the manufacture of foodstuffs, and coating processes for products ranging from semi-conductors and magnetic tape to television screens, but they are also of great fundamental interest to mathematicians, physicists and engineers. Thin fluid films can exhibit a wealth of fascinating behaviour, including wave propagation, rupture, and transition to quasi-periodic or chaotic structures. More details of various aspects of thin-film flow can be found in the recent review articles by Oron, Davis and Bankoff (1997) and Myers (1998), and in the volumes edited by Kistler and Schweizer (1997) and Batchelor, Moffatt and Worster (2000)

### Unidirectional flow of a thin rivulet on a vertical substrate subject to a prescribed uniform shear stress at its free surface

We use the lubrication approximation to analyze the steady unidirectional flow of a thin rivulet on a vertical substrate subject to a prescribed uniform longitudinal shear stress at its free surface. In particular, we determine the quasisteady stability of a rivulet of prescribed flux, and calculate when it is energetically favorable for a rivulet to split into two narrower rivulets

### Large-Biot-number non-isothermal flow of a thin film on a stationary or rotating cylinder

Using the lubrication approximation we investigate two-dimensional steady flow of a thin film of fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity on a uniformly heated or cooled horizontal cylinder, which may be stationary or rotating about its axis, in the case when the Biot number (a measure of heat transfer at the free surface) is large. We show that the film thickness (but not the fluid velocity) may be obtained from that in the isothermal case by a simple re-scaling

### Dynamics of a two-dimensional vapor bubble confined between superheated or subcooled parallel plates

The dynamics of a long, two-dimensional vapor bubble confined in the gap between two superheated or subcooled parallel plates is analyzed theoretically. The unsteady expansion and/or contraction of the bubble is driven by mass transfer between the liquid and the vapor. The analysis uses the approach developed by Wilson et al. J. Fluid Mech. 391, 1 1999 for a situation with 'large' gaps and 'small' superheating or subcooling to consider a situation with small gaps and large superheating or subcooling in which the mass transfer from or to the semicircular nose of the bubble is comparable to that from or to the thin liquid films on the plates. In order to permit a semi- analytical treatment the analysis is restricted to low Prandtl number liquids. When both plates are superheated the bubble always expands. In this case there are two possible constant-velocity continuous-film solutions for the expansion of the bubble, namely, an unstable fast mode and a stable slow mode. The evolution of the bubble is calculated numerically for a range of values of the parameters. In particular, these calculations show that eventually the bubble expands either with the constant velocity of the slow mode or exponentially. When both plates are subcooled the bubble always collapses to zero length in a finite time. When one plate is subcooled and the other plate is superheated the situation is rather more complicated. If the magnitude of the subcooling is less than that of the superheating then if the magnitude of the subcooling is greater than a critical value then a variety of complicated behaviors including the possibility of an unexpected 'waiting time' behavior in which the bubble remains almost stationary for a finite period oftime can occur before the bubble eventually collapses to a finite length in an infinite time, whereas if it is less than this critical value then the bubble always expands and eventually does so exponentially. If the magnitude of the subcooling is greater than that of the superheating then the bubble always collapses to zero length in a finite time

### Large-Biot-number non-isothermal flow of a thin film on a stationary or rotating cylinder

Using the lubrication approximation we investigate two-dimensional steady flow of a thin film of fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity on a uniformly heated or cooled horizontal cylinder, which may be stationary or rotating about its axis, in the case when the Biot number (a measure of heat transfer at the free surface) is large. We show that the film thickness (but not the fluid velocity) may be obtained from that in the isothermal case by a simple re-scaling

### Large-Biot-number non-isothermal flow of a thin film on a stationary or rotating cylinder

Using the lubrication approximation we investigate two-dimensional steady flow of a thin film of fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity on a uniformly heated or cooled horizontal cylinder, which may be stationary or rotating about its axis, in the case when the Biot number (a measure of heat transfer at the free surface) is large. We show that the film thickness (but not the fluid velocity) may be obtained from that in the isothermal case by a simple re-scaling

### Similarity solutions for slender rivulets with thermocapillarity

We use the lubrication approximation to investigate the steady flow of slender non-uniform rivulets of a viscous fluid on an inclined plane that is either heated or cooled relative to the surrounding atmosphere. Four non-isothermal situations in which thermocapillary effects play a significant role are considered. We derive the general equations for a slender rivulet subject to gravity, surface tension, thermocapillarity and a constant surface shear stress. Similarity solutions describing a thermocapillary-driven rivulet widening or narrowing due to either gravitational or surface-tension effects on a non-uniformly heated or cooled substrate are obtained, and we present examples of these solutions when the substrate temperature gradient depends on the longitudinal coordinate according to a general power law. When gravitational effects are strong there is a unique solution representing both a narrowing pendent rivulet and a widening sessile rivulet whose transverse profile always has a single global maximum. When surface-tension effects are strong there is a one-parameter family of solutions representing both a narrowing and a widening rivulet whose transverse profile has either a single global maximum or two equal global maxima and a local minimum. Unique similarity solutions whose transverse profiles always have a single global maximum are also obtained for both a gravity-driven and a constant-surface-shear-stress-driven rivulet widening or narrowing due to thermocapillarity on a uniformly heated or cooled substrate. The solutions in both cases represent both a narrowing rivulet on a heated substrate and a widening rivulet on a cooled substrate (albeit with infinite width in the gravity-driven case)

### Similarity solutions for slender dry patches with thermocapillarity

We use the lubrication approximation to investigate slender dry patches in an infinitely wide film of viscous fluid flowing steadily on an inclined plane that is either heated or cooled relative to the surrounding atmosphere. Four non-isothermal situations in which thermocapillary effects play a significant role are considered. Similarity solutions describing a thermocapillary-driven flow with a dry patch that is widening or narrowing due to either gravitational or surface-tension effects on a non-uniformly heated or cooled substrate are obtained, and we present examples of these solutions when the substrate temperature gradient depends on the longitudinal coordinate according to a general power law. When gravitational effects are strong the solution contains a free parameter, and for each value of this parameter there is a unique solution representing both a narrowing pendent dry patch and a widening sessile dry patch, whose transverse profile has a monotonically increasing shape. When surface tension effects are strong the solution also contains a free parameter, and for each value of this parameter there is both a unique solution representing a narrowing dry patch, whose transverse profile has a monotonically increasing shape, and a one-parameter family of solutions representing a widening dry patch, whose transverse profile has a capillary ridge near the contact line and decays in an oscillatory manner far from it. Similarity solutions are also obtained for both a gravity-driven and a constant surface- shear-stress-driven flow with a dry patch that is widening or narrowing due to thermocapillarity on a uniformly heated or cooled substrate. The solutions in both cases contain a free parameter, and for each value of this parameter there is a unique solution representing both a narrowing dry patch on a heated substrate and a widening dry patch on a cooled substrate, whose transverse profile has a monotonically increasing shape

### A thin rivulet of perfectly wetting fluid subject to a longitudinal surface shear stress

The lubrication approximation is used to obtain a complete description of the steady unidirectional flow of a thin rivulet of perfectly wetting fluid on an inclined substrate subject to a prescribed uniform longitudinal surface shear stress. The quasi-steady stability of such a rivulet is analysed, and the conditions under which it is energetically favourable for such a rivulet to split into one or more subrivulets are determined

### Air-blown rivulet flow of a perfectly wetting fluid on an inclined substrate

Thin-film flows occur in a variety of physical contexts including, for example, industry, biology and nature, and have been the subject of considerable theoretical research. (See, for example, the review by Oron, Davis and Bankoff [4].) In particular, there are several practically important situations in which an external airflow has a significant effect on the behaviour of a film of fluid, and consequently there has been considerable theoretical and numerical work done to try to understand better the various flows that can occur. (See, for example, the studies by King and Tuck [2] and Villegas-Díaz, Power and Riley [6].) The flow of a rivulet on a planar substrate subject to a shear stress at its free surface has been investigated by several authors, notably Myers, Liang and Wetton [3], Saber and El-Genk [5], and Wilson and Duffy [9]. All of these works concern a non-perfectly wetting fluid; the flow of a rivulet of a perfectly wetting fluid in the absence of a shear stress at its free surface has been treated by Alekseenko, Geshev and Kuibin [1], and by Wilson and Duffy [7,8]. In the present short paper we use the lubrication approximation to obtain a complete description of the steady unidirectional flow of a thin rivulet of a perfectly wetting fluid on an inclined substrate subject to a prescribed uniform longitudinal shear stress at its free surface

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