3,454 research outputs found

    Does sexual identity and religious practice have implications for individual’s subjective health and wellbeing? Secondary data analysis of the Community Life Survey

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    The health and wellbeing of LGB individual’s has gained attention in recent years, with increased recognition of the unique stressors associated with physical and psychological health concerns. Religious status and psychological health have been explored in the general population, however, few studies have explored sexual identity and religious status for implications on mental health and wellbeing. A secondary data analysis was performed on the Community Life Survey (Department for Culture, Media & Sport, 2019). A multivariate interaction was found between age, religious practice and sexual identity when considering four scores for wellbeing. An ANOVA of the Combined wellbeing scores revealed significant difference between sexual identity groups with the LGB group scoring lowest for combined wellbeing score and highlighted a significant interaction between religion and sexual identity. General health scores revealed significant difference between groups for religious practice. The implications of these findings for policy and practice are discussed, emphasising the importance of understanding and challenging cultural norms in service settings. There is a need to understand LGB individuals’ experiences and access to services to support mental health and wellbeing as key groups, such as LGB, are at greater risk of lower levels of wellbeing and increase levels of dissatisfaction

    Delusional Ideation, Cognitive Processes and Crime Based Reasoning

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    Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow & Morris, 2011; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2009; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Jones & Caulfield, 2011; Wilkinson, Caulfield & Jones, 2014). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p<0.05), which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom

    Trust, Efficacy and Ethicacy when testing prisoners for Covid19

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    The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and subsequent Covid-19 illness has had a major impact on all levels of society internationally. The extent of the impact of Covid-19 on prison staff and prisoners in England and Wales is unknown. Testing for Covid-19 both asymptomatic and symptomatic, as well as for antibodies, to date, has been minimal. The widespread testing of Covid-19 in prisons poses philosophical and ethical questions around trust, efficacy and ethicacy. This paper is both descriptive, providing an overview of the widespread testing of Covid-19 in prisoners in England and Wales, and conceptual in that it discusses and argues the issues associated with large-scale testing. This paper provides philosophical discussion, using comparative studies, of the issues associated with large-scale testing of prisoners across the prison estate in England and Wales (120 prisons). The issues identified in this paper are contextualised through the lens of Covid-19, but they are equally transferrable to epidemiological studies of any pandemic. Given the prevalence of Covid-19 globally and the lack of information about its spread in prisons, at the time of writing this paper, there is a programme of asymptomatic testing of prisoners. However, there remains a paucity of data on the spread of Covid-19 in prisons due to the progress with the ongoing testing programme. We argue that the widespread testing of prisoners requires careful consideration of the details regarding who is included in testing, how consent is gained and how tests are administered. This paper outlines and argues the importance of considering the complex nuance of power relationships within the prison system, between prisoner officers, medical staff and prisoners, and the detrimental consequences. The widespread testing of Covid-19 presents ethical and practical challenges. Careful planning is required when considering the ethics of who should be included in Covid-19 testing, how consent will be gained, who and how tests will be administered as well as very practical challenges around the recording and assigning of Covid-19 test kits inside the prison. The current system for the general population requires scanning of barcodes and registration using a mobile number, these facilities are not permitted inside a prison. This paper looks at the issues associated with mass testing of prisoners for Covid-19. There has not been any research that looks at the issues of testing either in the UK or internationally. The literature available details countries responses to the pandemic rather and scientific papers on the development of vaccines. Therefore, this paper is an original review of some of the practicalities that need to be addressed to ensure that testing can be as successful as possible

    A systematic review of the characteristics and needs of older prisoners

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    The older prisoner population is growing faster than the older general population and placing a strain on prisons. Much of the existing literature focusses on the healthcare needs of, or in-prison initiatives for, older prisoners. Typically, these are responsive and lacking an evidence-based understanding of the characteristics and needs of this group. There is a need to review and understand what the existing evidence base concludes about the needs of this population. This paper presents a systematic review of the existing literature on the needs and characteristics of older people in contact with the criminal justice system. After a thorough search and selection process, 21 papers, from 2002 onwards, were included in the final analysis. The review process was structured through PICOs and reported using PRISMA. The contradictions within the existing evidence base make it difficult to reach firm conclusions about the needs and characteristics of older prisoners. What is clear from the existing research are the relatively high levels of need. There is also some consensus that where older people commit homicide the victim is likely to be an intimate partner. Overall, there a need for consistent recording and reporting of characteristics and demographics and more systematic study design. This paper has highlighted the key findings and limitations in the existing literature. Future research should make use of secondary official data sources to provide a clearer understanding of the characteristics of this group, their routes to prison, their needs, and challenges they present

    Children and young peoples’ lyrics and voices capturing their experiences within Youth Justice Services

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    The research aimed to explore young peoples’ authentic experiences of YJS during the covid-19 pandemic. By adopting the creative arts-based method of lyric writing, the research team sought to empower participants through collaboration and participation and to facilitate them leading the narrative (Deakin, Fox and Matos, 2020). This research adopted a creative arts-based method in which participants worked alongside an artist to generate lyrics that captured their experiences within YJS’. Such an approach demonstrated a commitment to participatory, child-first approaches. Two main themes were identified: identity and relationships. The young people vocalised resistance to frequent labelling and their ambitions to move away from past criminal identity and behaviour. Relationships with practitioners could be source of frustration within this but were also highlighted as valuable and supportive. As data collection was remote, owing to the covid-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns, the opportunity to develop relationships with young people within the YJS’ prior to conducting the research was restricted. This approach may have also impacted upon recruitment of participants. The sessions presented short-term interventions and whilst follow-up sessions were offered, many did not take them up. Although the research sample is small and cannot be considered representative, it allows for a valuable insight into the experiences of young people at a particularly challenging time. Upon receiving our findings and recommendations, the first YJS research site has sought to further embed a relationship-based practice model and greater creative/participatory socially prescribed psychosocial therapeutic interventions, including music groups, and spoken word artists to work with children and young people

    Developing creative methodologies: using lyric writing to capture young peoples’ experiences of the youth offending services during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    Purpose The COVID-19 lockdowns (2020–2021) disrupted all aspects of usual functioning of the criminal justice system, the outcomes and impact of which are largely still unknown. The pandemic has affected individuals across the wider society, this includes a negative impact on the social circumstances of children and young people involved within youth offending services (YOS) (Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Probation, 2020; Criminal Justice Joint Inspectorates, 2021). This population frequently represents those from marginalised circumstances and are rarely given the opportunity to participate meaningfully in the services they are involved in. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of the young people serving orders with the YOS during Covid19 lockdowns and requirements. Design/methodology/approach This paper outlines a creative methodology and method used to uncover the experiences and perceptions of young people undergoing an order within a YOS during the COVID-19 lockdowns. The arts-based approach entailed a novel and creative method using a lyric artist to engage with young people through a virtual platform, supporting them to create lyrics about their experiences of the YOS during this time. Findings The artist developed a successful rapport with young people based on familiarity with, and passion for, music. He promoted their strengths, improving their confidence which was perceived to elicit more in-depth perspectives that might not have otherwise been obtained using more traditional methods. As such, the method and methodology outlined developed the young people’s social and communicative skills whilst producing meaningful feedback that can contribute to the YOS recovery plan and thus future of the service. Practical implications This paper reports on a novel arts-based research methodology, implemented to capture meaningful data from participants during the COVID-19 pandemic. Originality/value This paper reports on a novel arts-based research methodology, implemented to capture meaningful data from participants during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Criminological Research, Policy and PracticeDeveloping creative methodologies: using lyric writing to capture young peoples’ experiences of the Youth Offending Services during the Covid19 pandemic

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    The Covid19 lockdowns (2020-2021) disrupted all aspects of usual functions of the Criminal Justice System, the outcomes and impact of which are largely still unknown. The pandemic affected individuals across the wider society, this includes the social circumstances of young people involved within Youth Offending Services (YOS) (Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Probation, 2020; Criminal Justice Joint Inspectorates, 2021). This population is frequently drawn from marginalised circumstances and rarely given the opportunity to participate meaningfully in the services they are involved in. This paper outlines a creative methodology and method used to uncover the experiences and perceptions of the young people undergoing an order within a YOS during the Covid19 lockdowns. The arts-based approach entailed a novel and creative method using an artist to engage with young people through a virtual platform, supporting them to devise lyrics which captured their perceptions and experiences of the YOS during this time. The artist developed a successful rapport with young people based on, familiarity with and passion for, music. He promoted their strength, improving their confidence which was perceived to elicit more in-depth perspectives that might not have otherwise been obtained using more traditional methods. As such, the method and methodology outlined developed the young peoples social and communicative skills whilst producing meaningful feedback that can contribute to the YOS recovery plan and thus future of the service. This paper reports on a novel arts-based research methodology, implemented to capture meaningful data from participants during the Covid19 pandemic. This paper reports on a novel arts-based research methodology, implemented to capture meaningful data from participants during the Covid19 pandemic

    An investigation into the relationship between Schizotypy and crime based reasoning in a non-clinical population

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    Introduction In 2003, 90% of the prison population in England and Wales were categorised as having a mental illness (Birmingham, 2003). The male prison population contained a 1000 prisoners affected by Psychosis and nearly 2000 in need of immediate psychiatric treatment (Birmingham, 2004). Schizophrenia has been associated with an increased risk of criminality (Munkner, Haastrup, Joergensen & Kramp, 2009), high levels of reported aggression and violence during first time episode of psychosis (Harris et al., 2010). Schizotypal psychopathological characteristics can be found on a continuum (Claridge & Brooks, 1984; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) whereby they vary in severity due to a continuous phenotype (Van Os et al., 2000) in contrast to the categorical model. Consequently, a sub-clinical category of psychopathological behaviour has been identified, referred to as Schizotypy (Claridge, 1998). Method This thesis explores the reasoning abilities of non-clinical individuals screened for Schizotypal tendencies using the Peters Delusion Inventory (PDI, Peters et al., 2004). A series of specially designed unique crime based reasoning tasks were created to assess the potential differences, biases and errors in crime based reasoning when comparing high and low scoring individuals for Schizotypal tendencies. In addition, participants completed a short interview or audio diary, to record their reflections about completing the task, as well as considering any emotional responses. Results An innovative four-part self-referencing scale (me, family, friend & stranger) demonstrated that individuals typically made quicker decisions about themselves compared to making decisions about other people. However, reaction time data suggested that self-reference was unaffected by Schizotypy when engaged in crime based decision making (p > 0.05). Reaction times proved to be either unaffected by Schizotypy whilst completing crime based reasoning tasks or an insufficient measure of 3 the biases associated with Schizotypy. As an alternative, ‘data gathering’ measures provide a much more sensitive measure which helped to describe and detect the differences in Schizotypy, e.g. a significant main effect of reference level was found using ‘data garthering’ data (p < 0.05) and error score data (p< 0.05). The modality in which the crime based reasoning tasks were presented impacted upon the biases associated with Schizotypy, as opposed to any differences being as a result of dual processing functions placing greater demands on cognitive functional processing. The qualitative data provided a consistent and coherent account of metacognitive experience of reasoning whilst completing the tasks. The qualitative results have allowed a more coherent overview of the relationship and differences in experiences between high and low schizotypal scorers to emerge, based around the themes of emotion, justification and morality, and reasoning strategies (Wilkinson, Jones & Caulfield, 2011). Discussion Each of the studies within this thesis contributes to a better understanding of the biases that impact upon crime based reasoning, as well as confirmation of a ‘jump to conclusions’ bias (Dudley & Over, 2003; Dudley & Over, 1997; Huq, Garety & Hemsley, 1988) occurring in those individuals who scored high for Schizotypal tendencies. Furthermore, high scoring individuals demonstrated a reduction in emotive responses to the reasoning task scenarios and in some cases reported seeking the fewest pieces of information upon which to base their decision (Wilkinson, Jones & Caulfield, 2011). The qualitative methods developed for this research are particularly novel in the field of thinking and reasoning, and proved to be invaluable tools in helping shape the direction of the experimental work as well as providing better insight into the mechanisms involved in crime based decision making

    An evaluation of a violence reduction partnership network:mixed methods network analysis

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    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to report on the evaluation of the network and resources for violence prevention and reduction in the chosen area of focus. This area had experiences deprivation, significant implications due to Covid-19 restrictions and a lack of outdoor recreation space. Design/methodology/approach: Network analysis methodologies are increasingly being used in criminological research and evaluations to assess the structures of social and economic networks. This study explored, using a mixed-methods network analysis methodology, the nature of the established violence reduction network in a specific geographical location in West Midlands. Findings: A breadth of network activity is taking place across the community; however, the network analysis highlighted gaps in terms of specialist provision for early years and support from those with lived experience. It was perceived that a lack of continuity, in terms of changes in key roles, has affected the network. Funding mechanisms were perceived ineffective, and not encouraging of development of localisation services. Relationships between network members were predominantly positive with organisations having good communication and accessing support from one another; however, identifying shared goals and better collective working would benefit the network. Originality/value: This study pioneers using an innovative, mixed methods network analysis to explore a public health approach to violence prevention and reduction. Quantitative data collection and analysis allowed for assessment of the networks capacity and density, whereas qualitative data provided insights and detailed accounts of how the network functions.</p
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