2,363 research outputs found

    Trust, Efficacy and Ethicacy when testing prisoners for Covid19

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    The outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and subsequent Covid-19 illness has had a major impact on all levels of society internationally. The extent of the impact of Covid-19 on prison staff and prisoners in England and Wales is unknown. Testing for Covid-19 both asymptomatic and symptomatic, as well as for antibodies, to date, has been minimal. The widespread testing of Covid-19 in prisons poses philosophical and ethical questions around trust, efficacy and ethicacy. This paper is both descriptive, providing an overview of the widespread testing of Covid-19 in prisoners in England and Wales, and conceptual in that it discusses and argues the issues associated with large-scale testing. This paper provides philosophical discussion, using comparative studies, of the issues associated with large-scale testing of prisoners across the prison estate in England and Wales (120 prisons). The issues identified in this paper are contextualised through the lens of Covid-19, but they are equally transferrable to epidemiological studies of any pandemic. Given the prevalence of Covid-19 globally and the lack of information about its spread in prisons, at the time of writing this paper, there is a programme of asymptomatic testing of prisoners. However, there remains a paucity of data on the spread of Covid-19 in prisons due to the progress with the ongoing testing programme. We argue that the widespread testing of prisoners requires careful consideration of the details regarding who is included in testing, how consent is gained and how tests are administered. This paper outlines and argues the importance of considering the complex nuance of power relationships within the prison system, between prisoner officers, medical staff and prisoners, and the detrimental consequences. The widespread testing of Covid-19 presents ethical and practical challenges. Careful planning is required when considering the ethics of who should be included in Covid-19 testing, how consent will be gained, who and how tests will be administered as well as very practical challenges around the recording and assigning of Covid-19 test kits inside the prison. The current system for the general population requires scanning of barcodes and registration using a mobile number, these facilities are not permitted inside a prison. This paper looks at the issues associated with mass testing of prisoners for Covid-19. There has not been any research that looks at the issues of testing either in the UK or internationally. The literature available details countries responses to the pandemic rather and scientific papers on the development of vaccines. Therefore, this paper is an original review of some of the practicalities that need to be addressed to ensure that testing can be as successful as possible

    Criminological Research, Policy and PracticeDeveloping creative methodologies: using lyric writing to capture young peoples’ experiences of the Youth Offending Services during the Covid19 pandemic

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    The Covid19 lockdowns (2020-2021) disrupted all aspects of usual functions of the Criminal Justice System, the outcomes and impact of which are largely still unknown. The pandemic affected individuals across the wider society, this includes the social circumstances of young people involved within Youth Offending Services (YOS) (Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Probation, 2020; Criminal Justice Joint Inspectorates, 2021). This population is frequently drawn from marginalised circumstances and rarely given the opportunity to participate meaningfully in the services they are involved in. This paper outlines a creative methodology and method used to uncover the experiences and perceptions of the young people undergoing an order within a YOS during the Covid19 lockdowns. The arts-based approach entailed a novel and creative method using an artist to engage with young people through a virtual platform, supporting them to devise lyrics which captured their perceptions and experiences of the YOS during this time. The artist developed a successful rapport with young people based on, familiarity with and passion for, music. He promoted their strength, improving their confidence which was perceived to elicit more in-depth perspectives that might not have otherwise been obtained using more traditional methods. As such, the method and methodology outlined developed the young peoples social and communicative skills whilst producing meaningful feedback that can contribute to the YOS recovery plan and thus future of the service. This paper reports on a novel arts-based research methodology, implemented to capture meaningful data from participants during the Covid19 pandemic. This paper reports on a novel arts-based research methodology, implemented to capture meaningful data from participants during the Covid19 pandemic

    Phase Transition in the Aldous-Shields Model of Growing Trees

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    We study analytically the late time statistics of the number of particles in a growing tree model introduced by Aldous and Shields. In this model, a cluster grows in continuous time on a binary Cayley tree, starting from the root, by absorbing new particles at the empty perimeter sites at a rate proportional to c^{-l} where c is a positive parameter and l is the distance of the perimeter site from the root. For c=1, this model corresponds to random binary search trees and for c=2 it corresponds to digital search trees in computer science. By introducing a backward Fokker-Planck approach, we calculate the mean and the variance of the number of particles at large times and show that the variance undergoes a `phase transition' at a critical value c=sqrt{2}. While for c>sqrt{2} the variance is proportional to the mean and the distribution is normal, for c<sqrt{2} the variance is anomalously large and the distribution is non-Gaussian due to the appearance of extreme fluctuations. The model is generalized to one where growth occurs on a tree with mm branches and, in this more general case, we show that the critical point occurs at c=sqrt{m}.Comment: Latex 17 pages, 6 figure

    Clinical deterioration during antituberculosis treatment in Africa: Incidence, causes and risk factors

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    BACKGROUND:HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of antiretroviral and antituberculosis treatment in Africa, clinical deterioration during antituberculosis treatment remains a frequent reason for hospital admission. We therefore determined the incidence, causes and risk factors for clinical deterioration. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of 292 adults who initiated antituberculosis treatment during a 3-month period. We evaluated those with clinical deterioration over the following 24 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Seventy-one percent (209/292) of patients were HIV-1 infected (median CD4+: 129 cells/muL [IQR:62-277]). At tuberculosis diagnosis, 23% (34/145) of HIV-1 infected patients qualifying for antiretroviral treatment (ART) were receiving ART; 6 months later, 75% (109/145) had received ART. Within 24 weeks of initiating antituberculosis treatment, 40% (117/292) of patients experienced clinical deterioration due to co-morbid illness (n = 70), tuberculosis related illness (n = 47), non AIDS-defining HIV-1 related infection (n = 25) and AIDS-defining illness (n = 21). Using HIV-1 uninfected patients as the referent group, HIV-1 infected patients had an increasing risk of clinical deterioration as CD4+ counts decreased [CD4+>350 cells/muL: RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 0.7-2.9; CD4+:200-350 cells/muL: RR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.1-3.6; CD4+<200 cells/muL: RR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.9-4.7]. During follow-up, 26% (30/117) of patients with clinical deterioration required hospital admission and 15% (17/117) died. Fifteen deaths were in HIV-1 infected patients with a CD4+<200 cells/muL. CONCLUSIONS: In multivariate analysis, HIV-1 infection and a low CD4+ count at tuberculosis diagnosis were significant risk factors for clinical deterioration and death. The initiation of ART at a CD4+ count of <350 cells/muL will likely reduce the high burden of clinical deterioration

    Presentation and Outcome of Tuberculous Meningitis in a High HIV Prevalence Setting

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    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a common, devastating cause of meningitis in HIV-infected persons. Due to international rollout programs, access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is increasing globally. Starting patients with HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis (TBM) on ART during tuberculosis (TB) treatment may increase survival in these patients. We undertook this study to describe causes of meningitis at a secondary-level hospital in a high HIV/TB co-infection setting and to determine predictors of mortality in patients with TBM.A retrospective review of cerebrospinal fluid findings and clinical records over a six-month period (March 2009-August 2009). Definite, probable and possible TBM were diagnosed according to published case definitions.TBM was diagnosed in 120/211 patients (57%) with meningitis. In 106 HIV-infected patients with TBM, six-month all-cause mortality was lower in those who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) during TB treatment; hazard ratio = 0.30 (95% CI = 0.08-0.82). Factors associated with inpatient mortality in HIV-infected patients were 1) low CD4(+) count at presentation; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.96) per 50 cells/µL drop in CD4(+) count and, 2) higher British Medical Research Council TBM disease grade (2 or 3 versus 1); AOR = 4.8 (95% CI = 1.45-15.87).Starting ART prior to or during TB treatment may be associated with lower mortality in patients with HIV-associated TBM. Advanced HIV and worse stage of TBM disease predict in-hospital mortality in patients presenting with TBM

    Multisensory information facilitates reaction speed by enlarging activity difference between superior colliculus hemispheres in rats

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    Animals can make faster behavioral responses to multisensory stimuli than to unisensory stimuli. The superior colliculus (SC), which receives multiple inputs from different sensory modalities, is considered to be involved in the initiation of motor responses. However, the mechanism by which multisensory information facilitates motor responses is not yet understood. Here, we demonstrate that multisensory information modulates competition among SC neurons to elicit faster responses. We conducted multiunit recordings from the SC of rats performing a two-alternative spatial discrimination task using auditory and/or visual stimuli. We found that a large population of SC neurons showed direction-selective activity before the onset of movement in response to the stimuli irrespective of stimulation modality. Trial-by-trial correlation analysis showed that the premovement activity of many SC neurons increased with faster reaction speed for the contraversive movement, whereas the premovement activity of another population of neurons decreased with faster reaction speed for the ipsiversive movement. When visual and auditory stimuli were presented simultaneously, the premovement activity of a population of neurons for the contraversive movement was enhanced, whereas the premovement activity of another population of neurons for the ipsiversive movement was depressed. Unilateral inactivation of SC using muscimol prolonged reaction times of contraversive movements, but it shortened those of ipsiversive movements. These findings suggest that the difference in activity between the SC hemispheres regulates the reaction speed of motor responses, and multisensory information enlarges the activity difference resulting in faster responses

    Observation of two new Ξb−\Xi_b^- baryon resonances

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    Two structures are observed close to the kinematic threshold in the Ξb0π−\Xi_b^0 \pi^- mass spectrum in a sample of proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb−1^{-1} recorded by the LHCb experiment. In the quark model, two baryonic resonances with quark content bdsbds are expected in this mass region: the spin-parity JP=12+J^P = \frac{1}{2}^+ and JP=32+J^P=\frac{3}{2}^+ states, denoted Ξb′−\Xi_b^{\prime -} and Ξb∗−\Xi_b^{*-}. Interpreting the structures as these resonances, we measure the mass differences and the width of the heavier state to be m(Ξb′−)−m(Ξb0)−m(π−)=3.653±0.018±0.006m(\Xi_b^{\prime -}) - m(\Xi_b^0) - m(\pi^{-}) = 3.653 \pm 0.018 \pm 0.006 MeV/c2/c^2, m(Ξb∗−)−m(Ξb0)−m(π−)=23.96±0.12±0.06m(\Xi_b^{*-}) - m(\Xi_b^0) - m(\pi^{-}) = 23.96 \pm 0.12 \pm 0.06 MeV/c2/c^2, Γ(Ξb∗−)=1.65±0.31±0.10\Gamma(\Xi_b^{*-}) = 1.65 \pm 0.31 \pm 0.10 MeV, where the first and second uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The width of the lighter state is consistent with zero, and we place an upper limit of Γ(Ξb′−)<0.08\Gamma(\Xi_b^{\prime -}) < 0.08 MeV at 95% confidence level. Relative production rates of these states are also reported.Comment: 17 pages, 2 figure

    Observation of J/ψpJ/\psi p resonances consistent with pentaquark states in Λb0→J/ψK−p{\Lambda_b^0\to J/\psi K^-p} decays

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    Observations of exotic structures in the J/ψpJ/\psi p channel, that we refer to as pentaquark-charmonium states, in Λb0→J/ψK−p\Lambda_b^0\to J/\psi K^- p decays are presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 3/fb acquired with the LHCb detector from 7 and 8 TeV pp collisions. An amplitude analysis is performed on the three-body final-state that reproduces the two-body mass and angular distributions. To obtain a satisfactory fit of the structures seen in the J/ψpJ/\psi p mass spectrum, it is necessary to include two Breit-Wigner amplitudes that each describe a resonant state. The significance of each of these resonances is more than 9 standard deviations. One has a mass of 4380±8±294380\pm 8\pm 29 MeV and a width of 205±18±86205\pm 18\pm 86 MeV, while the second is narrower, with a mass of 4449.8±1.7±2.54449.8\pm 1.7\pm 2.5 MeV and a width of 39±5±1939\pm 5\pm 19 MeV. The preferred JPJ^P assignments are of opposite parity, with one state having spin 3/2 and the other 5/2.Comment: 48 pages, 18 figures including the supplementary material, v2 after referee's comments, now 19 figure

    Study of B−→DK−π+π−B^{-}\to DK^-\pi^+\pi^- and B−→Dπ−π+π−B^-\to D\pi^-\pi^+\pi^- decays and determination of the CKM angle γ\gamma

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    We report a study of the suppressed B−→DK−π+π−B^-\to DK^-\pi^+\pi^- and favored B−→Dπ−π+π−B^-\to D\pi^-\pi^+\pi^- decays, where the neutral DD meson is detected through its decays to the K∓π±K^{\mp}\pi^{\pm} and CP-even K+K−K^+K^- and π+π−\pi^+\pi^- final states. The measurement is carried out using a proton-proton collision data sample collected by the LHCb experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0~fb−1^{-1}. We observe the first significant signals in the CP-even final states of the DD meson for both the suppressed B−→DK−π+π−B^-\to DK^-\pi^+\pi^- and favored B−→Dπ−π+π−B^-\to D\pi^-\pi^+\pi^- modes, as well as in the doubly Cabibbo-suppressed D→K+π−D\to K^+\pi^- final state of the B−→Dπ−π+π−B^-\to D\pi^-\pi^+\pi^- decay. Evidence for the ADS suppressed decay B−→DK−π+π−B^{-}\to DK^-\pi^+\pi^-, with D→K+π−D\to K^+\pi^-, is also presented. From the observed yields in the B−→DK−π+π−B^-\to DK^-\pi^+\pi^-, B−→Dπ−π+π−B^-\to D\pi^-\pi^+\pi^- and their charge conjugate decay modes, we measure the value of the weak phase to be γ=(74−19+20)o\gamma=(74^{+20}_{-19})^{\rm o}. This is one of the most precise single-measurement determinations of γ\gamma to date.Comment: 22 pages, 9 figures; All figures and tables, along with any supplementary material and additional information, are available at https://lhcbproject.web.cern.ch/lhcbproject/Publications/LHCbProjectPublic/LHCb-PAPER-2015-020.htm
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