967 research outputs found

    From Biological to Synthetic Neurorobotics Approaches to Understanding the Structure Essential to Consciousness (Part 3)

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    This third paper locates the synthetic neurorobotics research reviewed in the second paper in terms of themes introduced in the first paper. It begins with biological non-reductionism as understood by Searle. It emphasizes the role of synthetic neurorobotics studies in accessing the dynamic structure essential to consciousness with a focus on system criticality and self, develops a distinction between simulated and formal consciousness based on this emphasis, reviews Tani and colleagues' work in light of this distinction, and ends by forecasting the increasing importance of synthetic neurorobotics studies for cognitive science and philosophy of mind going forward, finally in regards to most- and myth-consciousness

    Time-of-Flight Ranging for WSN Locationing (Project Information Sheet)

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    To develop a narrow-band RF-based Time-of-Flight (ToF) ranging method with sub-meter ranging resolution which can be adopted in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for the purpose of localising sensor nodes. The use of RF will enable point-to-point ranging over larger distance (>50m) than current Ultra-wideband (UWB) based TOF systems with significantly less use of channel bandwidth

    From Biological to Synthetic Neurorobotics Approaches to Understanding the Structure Essential to Consciousness (Part 2)

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    We have been left with a big challenge, to articulate consciousness and also to prove it in an artificial agent against a biological standard. After introducing Boltuc’s h-consciousness in the last paper, we briefly reviewed some salient neurology in order to sketch less of a standard than a series of targets for artificial consciousness, “most-consciousness” and “myth-consciousness.” With these targets on the horizon, we began reviewing the research program pursued by Jun Tani and colleagues in the isolation of the formal dynamics essential to either. In this paper, we describe in detail Tani’s research program, in order to make the clearest case for artificial consciousness in these systems. In the next paper, the third in the series, we will return to Boltuc’s naturalistic non-reductionism in light of the neurorobotics models introduced (alongside some others), and evaluate them more completely

    ACross-Sectional Analysis of CapRates by MSA

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    Much attention has been paid to capitalization rates or “cap rates?defined as the net operating income over transaction price, also known as a “going-in?current yield on commercial real estate when calculated at the time of purchase. We know that there are a number of global factors that drive capital markets and required rates of return that help to explain observed cap rates over time, but we know little about factors driving the geographical cross-sectional variation of these cap rates. Why are cap rates for similar sized and type property so much lower or higher in one metropolitan statistical area than another? Using data from Real Capital Analytics for multifamily properties we explore several models that combine the expected influences from housing demand growth, supply constraints, liquidity risk and the interaction of these. We document a very strong and robust relation between supply constraints and cap rates as well as evidence of capital flowing from larger markets to smaller markets in recent years. We also find weak but generally supportive evidence of influences from expected growth rates, liquidity and other risk factors.

    Development of a simplistic vegetative filter strip model for sediment and nutrient retention at the field scale

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    Vegetative filter strips (VFSs) are a commonly used conservation measure to remove pollutants from agricultural runoff. The effectiveness of VFSs has been widely studied at the plot scale, yet researchers generally agree that field scale implementations are far less effective. The purpose of this research was to develop a field scale VFS submodel for the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A model for the retention of sediments and nutrients in VFSs was developed from experimental observations derived from 22 publications. A runoff retention model was developed from Vegetative Filter Strip MODel (VFSMOD) simulations. This model was adapted to operate at the field scale by considering the effects of flow concentration generally absent from plot scale experiments. Flow concentration through 10 hypothetical VFSs was evaluated using high resolution (2 m) topographical data and multipath flow accumulation. Significant flow concentration was predicted at all sites, on average 10% of the VFS received half of the field runoff. As implemented in SWAT, the VFS model contains two sections, a large section receiving relatively modest flow densities and a smaller section treating more concentrated flow. This field scale model was incorporated into SWAT and verified for proper function. This model enhances the ability of SWAT to evaluate the effectiveness of VFSs at the watershed scale

    Performance of formulae based estimates of glomerular filtration rate for carboplatin dosing in stage 1 seminoma

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    <b>Background:</b> Single cycle carboplatin, dosed by glomerular filtration rate (GFR), is standard adjuvant therapy for stage 1 seminoma. Accurate measurement of GFR is essential for correct dosing. Isotopic methods remain the gold standard for the determination of GFR. Formulae to estimate GFR have improved the assessment of renal function in non-oncological settings. We assessed the utility of these formulae for carboplatin dosing.<p></p> <b>Methods:</b> We studied consecutive subjects receiving adjuvant carboplatin for stage 1 seminoma at our institution between 2007 and 2012. Subjects underwent 51Cr-ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) measurement of GFR with carboplatin dose calculated using the Calvert formula. Theoretical carboplatin doses were calculated from estimated GFR using Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI), Management of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Cockcroft–Gault (CG) formulae with additional correction for actual body surface area (BSA). Carboplatin doses calculated by formulae were compared with dose calculated by isotopic GFR; a difference <10% was considered acceptable.<p></p> <b>Results:</b> 115 patients were identified. Mean isotopic GFR was 96.9 ml/min/1.73 m2. CG and CKD-EPI tended to overestimate GFR whereas MDRD tended to underestimate GFR. The CKD-EPI formula had greatest accuracy. The CKD-EPI formula, corrected for actual BSA, performed best; 45.9% of patients received within 10% of correct carboplatin dose. Patients predicted as underdosed (13.5%) by CKD-EPI were more likely to be obese (p = 0.013); there were no predictors of the 40.5% receiving an excess dose.<p></p> <b>Conclusions:</b> Our data support further evaluation of the CKD-EPI formula in this patient population but clinically significant variances in carboplatin dosing occur using non-isotopic methods of GFR estimation. Isotopic determination of GFR should remain the recommended standard for carboplatin dosing when accuracy is essential.<p></p&gt

    Evaluation of a modified application procedure of glare reducing skin coatings as utilized in athletics

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    Traditionally, athletes who have applied glare reducing skin coatings have applied it as a black stripe on the cheek bone directly under the eyes. This substance was found to enhance contrast sensitivity when applied in the normal manner in an investigation by Dayton, Elm, Houle, Thomas, Reichow, and Roth. This paper will address the ability of the Cramer glare reducing skin coating to further increase contrast sensitivity utilizing a modified application technique . Utilizing the Arden Plates, contrast sensitivity (CS) was measured on 60 subjects ages 15-30 in a high glare environment using three methods; without the product, with the glare reducing product applied the traditional way, and with the product applied in a more arcuate manner. With the intense glare source on, subjects\u27 CS increased significantly at all spatial frequencies tested when wearing the SGB in the modified manner. At .35 and 1 .4 cpd, significant improvement was noted when comparing no Sun Glare Black (SGB) and the modified application technique. At .7 cpd, significant improvement was shown when comparing no SGB and SGB applied in the modified fashion, and when comparing traditional and modified techniques. At 2.8 cpd, a significant improvement was revealed between no SGB and SGB applied traditionally, and when comparing no SGB and the modified application technique

    Late-Onset Meningeal Metastases in Liposarcoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Intracranial metastases from liposarcoma are rare and almost always preceded by the development of systemic tumour spread. We report here a case of liposarcoma with spread to the cranial nervous system 23 years after treatment of the primary tumour. The literature on brain metastases from soft tissue sarcoma is also reviewed