28 research outputs found

    Computational themes in applications of visual perception

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    Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/76646/1/AIAA-1987-1674-988.pd

    Depth from relative normal flows

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    Most of the depth from image flow algorithms has to rely on either good initial guesses, or some assumptions about the object surfaces to achieve solutions that agree with the physical world. Waxman and Sinha point out that those restrictions can be relaxed if depth is computed from a relative image flow field. Since image flow determination is relatively much more difficult than normal flow determination, it is of interest to develop an algorithm to recover depth from normal flows. In this paper, we have shown that similar results can be obtained from relative normal flow fields as from relative image flow fields. We have implemented a normal flow estimation algorithm, and applied our algorithm to recover depth from intensity images.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/28932/1/0000769.pd

    LRpath analysis reveals common pathways dysregulated via DNA methylation across cancer types

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    Abstract Background The relative contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to carcinogenesis is not well understood, including the extent to which epigenetic dysregulation and somatic mutations target similar genes and pathways. We hypothesize that during carcinogenesis, certain pathways or biological gene sets are commonly dysregulated via DNA methylation across cancer types. The ability of our logistic regression-based gene set enrichment method to implicate important biological pathways in high-throughput data is well established. Results We developed a web-based gene set enrichment application called LRpath with clustering functionality that allows for identification and comparison of pathway signatures across multiple studies. Here, we employed LRpath analysis to unravel the commonly altered pathways and other gene sets across ten cancer studies employing DNA methylation data profiled with the Illumina HumanMethylation27 BeadChip. We observed a surprising level of concordance in differential methylation across multiple cancer types. For example, among commonly hypomethylated groups, we identified immune-related functions, peptidase activity, and epidermis/keratinocyte development and differentiation. Commonly hypermethylated groups included homeobox and other DNA-binding genes, nervous system and embryonic development, and voltage-gated potassium channels. For many gene sets, we observed significant overlap in the specific subset of differentially methylated genes. Interestingly, fewer DNA repair genes were differentially methylated than expected by chance. Conclusions Clustering analysis performed with LRpath revealed tightly clustered concepts enriched for differential methylation. Several well-known cancer-related pathways were significantly affected, while others were depleted in differential methylation. We conclude that DNA methylation changes in cancer tend to target a subset of the known cancer pathways affected by genetic aberrations.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/112789/1/12864_2012_Article_4373.pd