121 research outputs found

    Public Policy for Suburban Integration...The Case for New Communities

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    In this Article we examine the integration experience of one type of suburban community - new communities developed from the ground up - to determine whether integration has been beneficial to blacks and low- and moderate-income households, whether it is acceptable to the affluent white majority, and whether new community development is a desirable means of fostering integration

    Phase diffusion as a model for coherent suppression of tunneling in the presence of noise

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    We study the stabilization of coherent suppression of tunneling in a driven double-well system subject to random periodic δ\delta-function ``kicks''. We model dissipation due to this stochastic process as a phase diffusion process for an effective two-level system and derive a corresponding set of Bloch equations with phase damping terms that agree with the periodically kicked system at discrete times. We demonstrate that the ability of noise to localize the system on either side of the double-well potenital arises from overdamping of the phase of oscillation and not from any cooperative effect between the noise and the driving field. The model is investigated with a square wave drive, which has qualitatively similar features to the widely studied cosinusoidal drive, but has the additional advantage of allowing one to derive exact analytic expressions.Comment: 17 pages, 4 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    A major genetic locus in <i>Trypanosoma brucei</i> is a determinant of host pathology

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    The progression and variation of pathology during infections can be due to components from both host or pathogen, and/or the interaction between them. The influence of host genetic variation on disease pathology during infections with trypanosomes has been well studied in recent years, but the role of parasite genetic variation has not been extensively studied. We have shown that there is parasite strain-specific variation in the level of splenomegaly and hepatomegaly in infected mice and used a forward genetic approach to identify the parasite loci that determine this variation. This approach allowed us to dissect and identify the parasite loci that determine the complex phenotypes induced by infection. Using the available trypanosome genetic map, a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) was identified on T. brucei chromosome 3 (LOD = 7.2) that accounted for approximately two thirds of the variance observed in each of two correlated phenotypes, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, in the infected mice (named &lt;i&gt;TbOrg1&lt;/i&gt;). In addition, a second locus was identified that contributed to splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and reticulocytosis (&lt;i&gt;TbOrg2&lt;/i&gt;). This is the first use of quantitative trait locus mapping in a diploid protozoan and shows that there are trypanosome genes that directly contribute to the progression of pathology during infections and, therefore, that parasite genetic variation can be a critical factor in disease outcome. The identification of parasite loci is a first step towards identifying the genes that are responsible for these important traits and shows the power of genetic analysis as a tool for dissecting complex quantitative phenotypic traits

    Quantum Statistics and Entanglement of Two Electromagnetic Field Modes Coupled via a Mesoscopic SQUID Ring

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    In this paper we investigate the behaviour of a fully quantum mechanical system consisting of a mesoscopic SQUID ring coupled to one or two electromagnetic field modes. We show that we can use a static magnetic flux threading the SQUID ring to control the transfer of energy, the entanglement and the statistical properties of the fields coupled to the ring. We also demonstrate that at, and around, certain values of static flux the effective coupling between the components of the system is large. The position of these regions in static flux is dependent on the energy level structure of the ring and the relative field mode frequencies, In these regions we find that the entanglement of states in the coupled system, and the energy transfer between its components, is strong.Comment: 15 pages, 19 figures, Uploaded as implementing a policy of arXiving old paper

    Diurnal Variation in Urodynamics of Rat

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    In humans, the storage and voiding functions of the urinary bladder have a characteristic diurnal variation, with increased voiding during the day and urine storage during the night. However, in animal models, the daily functional differences in urodynamics have not been well-studied. The goal of this study was to identify key urodynamic parameters that vary between day and night. Rats were chronically instrumented with an intravesical catheter, and bladder pressure, voided volumes, and micturition frequency were measured by continuous filling cystometry during the light (inactive) or dark (active) phases of the circadian cycle. Cage activity was recorded by video during the experiment. We hypothesized that nocturnal rats entrained to a standard 12:12 light:dark cycle would show greater ambulatory activity and more frequent, smaller volume micturitions in the dark compared to the light. Rats studied during the light phase had a bladder capacity of 1.44±0.21 mL and voided every 8.2±1.2 min. Ambulatory activity was lower in the light phase, and rats slept during the recording period, awakening only to urinate. In contrast, rats studied during the dark were more active, had a lower bladder capacities (0.65±0.18 mL), and urinated more often (every 3.7±0.9 min). Average bladder pressures were not significantly different between the light and dark (13.40±2.49 and 12.19±2.85 mmHg, respectively). These results identify a day-night difference in bladder capacity and micturition frequency in chronically-instrumented nocturnal rodents that is phase-locked to the normal circadian locomotor activity rhythm of the animal. Furthermore, since it has generally been assumed that the daily hormonal regulation of renal function is a major driver of the circadian rhythm in urination, and few studies have addressed the involvement of the lower urinary tract, these results establish the bladder itself as a target for circadian regulation

    DRD4 Polymorphism Moderates the Effect of Alcohol Consumption on Social Bonding

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    Development of interpersonal relationships is a fundamental human motivation, and behaviors facilitating social bonding are prized. Some individuals experience enhanced reward from alcohol in social contexts and may be at heightened risk for developing and maintaining problematic drinking. We employed a 3 (group beverage condition) ×2 (genotype) design (N = 422) to test the moderating influence of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism on the effects of alcohol on social bonding. A significant gene x environment interaction showed that carriers of at least one copy of the 7-repeat allele reported higher social bonding in the alcohol, relative to placebo or control conditions, whereas alcohol did not affect ratings of 7-absent allele carriers. Carriers of the 7-repeat allele were especially sensitive to alcohol's effects on social bonding. These data converge with other recent gene-environment interaction findings implicating the DRD4 polymorphism in the development of alcohol use disorders, and results suggest a specific pathway by which social factors may increase risk for problematic drinking among 7-repeat carriers. More generally, our findings highlight the potential utility of employing transdisciplinary methods that integrate genetic methodologies, social psychology, and addiction theory to improve theories of alcohol use and abuse

    The James Webb Space Telescope Mission

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    Twenty-six years ago a small committee report, building on earlier studies, expounded a compelling and poetic vision for the future of astronomy, calling for an infrared-optimized space telescope with an aperture of at least 4m4m. With the support of their governments in the US, Europe, and Canada, 20,000 people realized that vision as the 6.5m6.5m James Webb Space Telescope. A generation of astronomers will celebrate their accomplishments for the life of the mission, potentially as long as 20 years, and beyond. This report and the scientific discoveries that follow are extended thank-you notes to the 20,000 team members. The telescope is working perfectly, with much better image quality than expected. In this and accompanying papers, we give a brief history, describe the observatory, outline its objectives and current observing program, and discuss the inventions and people who made it possible. We cite detailed reports on the design and the measured performance on orbit.Comment: Accepted by PASP for the special issue on The James Webb Space Telescope Overview, 29 pages, 4 figure