50,804 research outputs found

    Twist-3 effects in deeply virtual Compton scattering made simple

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    We show that electromagnetic gauge invariance requires a 'spin rotation' of the quarks in the usual twist-2 contribution to the amplitude for deeply virtual Compton scattering. This rotation is equivalent to the inclusion of certain kinematical twist-3 (Wandzura-Wilczek type) terms, which have been derived previously using other methods. The new representation of the twist-3 terms is very compact and allows for a simple physical interpretation.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures, uses ws-p8-50x6-00.cls . Proceedings of the Baryons 2002 Conference, Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA, March 3-8, 200

    Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities

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    In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M_pi^{-1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two-pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M_pi^2. Using relativistic chiral effective field theory in the leading-order approximation, we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M_pi^{-1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M_N^2/M_pi^3); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta intermediate states and study the densities in the large-N_c limit of QCD; (e) quantify the spatial region where the chiral components are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b^2-weighted moments of the transverse densities (charge and magnetic radii) and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.Comment: 52 pages, 13 figure

    Light-front representation of chiral dynamics in peripheral transverse densities

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    The nucleon's electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of the transverse densities of charge and magnetization at fixed light-front time. At peripheral transverse distances b=O(Mπ1)b = O(M_\pi^{-1}) the densities are governed by chiral dynamics and can be calculated model-independently using chiral effective field theory (EFT). We represent the leading-order chiral EFT results for the peripheral transverse densities as overlap integrals of chiral light-front wave functions, describing the transition of the initial nucleon to soft pion-nucleon intermediate states and back. The new representation (a) explains the parametric order of the peripheral transverse densities; (b) establishes an inequality between the spin-independent and -dependent densities; (c) exposes the role of pion orbital angular momentum in chiral dynamics; (d) reveals a large left-right asymmetry of the current in a transversely polarized nucleon and suggests a simple interpretation. The light-front representation enables a first-quantized, quantum-mechanical view of chiral dynamics that is fully relativistic and exactly equivalent to the second-quantized, field-theoretical formulation. It relates the charge and magnetization densities measured in low-energy elastic scattering to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes. The method can be applied to nucleon form factors of other operators, e.g. the energy-momentum tensor.Comment: 28 pages, 9 figure

    Low-complexity high-performance GFSK receiver with carrier frequency offset correction

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    This paper presents an implementation of a GFSK receiver based on matched filtering of a sequence of K successive bits. This enables improved detection and superior BER performance but requires 2K matched filters of considerable complexity. Exploiting redundancy by performing phase propagation of successive single-bit stages, we propose an efficient receiver implementation. Results presented highlight the benefits of the proposed methd in terms of computational cost and performance compared to standard methods. We also address carrier frequency offset, and suggest a blind algorithm for its elimination. Performance results are exemplarily shown for a Bluetooth system

    Return migration: theory and empirical evidence

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    In this paper we discuss forms of migration that are non-permanent. We focus on temporary migrations where the decision to return is taken by the immigrant. These migrations are likely to be frequent, and we provide some evidence for the UK. We then develop a simple model which rationalizes the decision of a migrant to return to his home country, despite a persistently higher wage in the host country. We consider three motives for a temporary migration: Differences in relative prices in host- and home country, complementarities between consumption and the location where consumption takes place, and the possibility of accumulating human capital abroad which enhances the immigrant's earnings potential back home. For the last return motive, we discuss extensions which allow for immigrant heterogeneity, and develop implications for selective in- and out- migration