2 research outputs found

    Beyond protein synthesis: the emerging role of arginine in poultry nutrition and host-microbe interactions

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    Arginine is a functional amino acid essential for various physiological processes in poultry. The dietary essentiality of arginine in poultry stems from the absence of the enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthase-I. The specific requirement for arginine in poultry varies based on several factors, such as age, dietary factors, and physiological status. Additionally, arginine absorption and utilization are also influenced by the presence of antagonists. However, dietary interventions can mitigate the effect of these factors affecting arginine utilization. In poultry, arginine is utilized by four enzymes, namely, inducible nitric oxide synthase arginase, arginine decarboxylase and arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT). The intermediates and products of arginine metabolism by these enzymes mediate the different physiological functions of arginine in poultry. The most studied function of arginine in humans, as well as poultry, is its role in immune response. Arginine exerts immunomodulatory functions primarily through the metabolites nitric oxide (NO), ornithine, citrulline, and polyamines, which take part in inflammation or the resolution of inflammation. These properties of arginine and arginine metabolites potentiate its use as a nutraceutical to prevent the incidence of enteric diseases in poultry. Furthermore, arginine is utilized by the poultry gut microbiota, the metabolites of which might have important implications for gut microbial composition, immune regulation, metabolism, and overall host health. This comprehensive review provides insights into the multifaceted roles of arginine and arginine metabolites in poultry nutrition and wellbeing, with particular emphasis on the potential of arginine in immune regulation and microbial homeostasis in poultry

    Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens: A Review on the Pathogen, Pathogenesis, and Prevention

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    Clostridium perfringens type A and C are the primary etiological agents associated with necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry. The predisposing factors implicated in the incidence of NE changes the physical properties of the gut, immunological status of birds, and disrupt the gut microbial homeostasis, causing an over-proliferation of C. perfringens. The principal virulence factors contributing to the pathogenesis of NE are the α-toxin, β-toxin, and NetB toxin. The immune response to NE in poultry is mediated by the Th1 pathway or cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. C. perfringens type A and C are also pathogenic in humans, and hence are of public health significance. C. perfringens intoxications are the third most common bacterial foodborne disease after Salmonella and Campylobacter. The restrictions on the use of antibiotics led to an increased incidence of NE in poultry. Hence, it is essential to develop alternative strategies to keep the prevalence of NE under check. The control strategies rely principally on the positive modulation of host immune response, nutritional manipulation, and pathogen reduction. Current knowledge on the etiology, pathogenesis, predisposing factors, immune response, effect on the gut microbial homeostasis, and preventative strategies of NE in this post-antibiotic era is addressed in this review