14,154 research outputs found

    Being a non-drinking student: an interpretative phenomenological analysis

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    Recent research suggests that safer student alcohol consumption might be assisted by understanding how social occasions are managed by non-drinkers. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with five 19-22 year old non-drinking English undergraduates were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). We present five inter-linked themes: ‘living with challenges to non drinking’; ‘seeing what goes on in drinking environments’; ‘dealing with conversations about non-drinking (‘making excuses vs. coming out’)’; ‘knowing which friends care about you’; and ‘the importance of withholding “legroom” for peer pressure’. Participants felt under persistent peer scrutiny (as a form of peer pressure) and could feel alienated in drinking environments. Talking about non-drinking was characterised by whether to ‘come out’ (as a non-drinker) or ‘fake it’ (e.g., ‘I’m on antibiotics’). Loyal friendships were reported as particularly important in this context. The decision not to drink was experienced as providing a successful buffer to peer pressure for former drinkers. Our findings unsettle traditional health promotion campaigns which advocate moderate drinking among students without always suggesting how it might be most successfully accomplished, and offer tentative guidance on how non-drinking during specific social occasions might be managed more successfully. Findings are discussed in relation to extant literature and future research directions are suggested

    Tolman mass, generalized surface gravity, and entropy bounds

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    In any static spacetime the quasi-local Tolman mass contained within a volume can be reduced to a Gauss-like surface integral involving the flux of a suitably defined generalized surface gravity. By introducing some basic thermodynamics and invoking the Unruh effect one can then develop elementary bounds on the quasi-local entropy that are very similar in spirit to the holographic bound, and closely related to entanglement entropy.Comment: V1: 4 pages. Uses revtex4-1; V2: Three references added; V3: Some notational changes for clarity; introductory paragraph rewritten; no physics changes. This version accepted for publication in Physical Review Letter

    Tolman wormholes violate the strong energy condition

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    For an arbitrary Tolman wormhole, unconstrained by symmetry, we shall define the bounce in terms of a three-dimensional edgeless achronal spacelike hypersurface of minimal volume. (Zero trace for the extrinsic curvature plus a "flare-out" condition.) This enables us to severely constrain the geometry of spacetime at and near the bounce and to derive general theorems regarding violations of the energy conditions--theorems that do not involve geodesic averaging but nevertheless apply to situations much more general than the highly symmetric FRW-based subclass of Tolman wormholes. [For example: even under the mildest of hypotheses, the strong energy condition (SEC) must be violated.] Alternatively, one can dispense with the minimal volume condition and define a generic bounce entirely in terms of the motion of test particles (future-pointing timelike geodesics), by looking at the expansion of their timelike geodesic congruences. One re-confirms that the SEC must be violated at or near the bounce. In contrast, it is easy to arrange for all the other standard energy conditions to be satisfied.Comment: 8 pages, ReV-TeX 3.

    Analogue model for quantum gravity phenomenology

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    So called "analogue models" use condensed matter systems (typically hydrodynamic) to set up an "effective metric" and to model curved-space quantum field theory in a physical system where all the microscopic degrees of freedom are well understood. Known analogue models typically lead to massless minimally coupled scalar fields. We present an extended "analogue space-time" programme by investigating a condensed-matter system - in and beyond the hydrodynamic limit - that is in principle capable of simulating the massive Klein-Gordon equation in curved spacetime. Since many elementary particles have mass, this is an essential step in building realistic analogue models, and an essential first step towards simulating quantum gravity phenomenology. Specifically, we consider the class of two-component BECs subject to laser-induced transitions between the components, and we show that this model is an example for Lorentz invariance violation due to ultraviolet physics. Furthermore our model suggests constraints on quantum gravity phenomenology in terms of the "naturalness problem" and "universality issue".Comment: Talk given at 7th Workshop on Quantum Field Theory Under the Influence of External Conditions (QFEXT 05), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, 5-9 Sep 200

    Bound Modes in Dielectric Microcavities

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    We demonstrate how exactly bound cavity modes can be realized in dielectric structures other than 3d photonic crystals. For a microcavity consisting of crossed anisotropic layers, we derive the cavity resonance frequencies, and spontaneous emission rates. For a dielectric structure with dissipative loss and central layer with gain, the beta factor of direct spontaneous emission into a cavity mode and the laser threshold is calculated.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Gravitational vacuum polarization III: Energy conditions in the (1+1) Schwarzschild spacetime

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    Building on a pair of earlier papers, I investigate the various point-wise and averaged energy conditions for the quantum stress-energy tensor corresponding to a conformally-coupled massless scalar field in the in the (1+1)-dimensional Schwarzschild spacetime. Because the stress-energy tensors are analytically known, I can get exact results for the Hartle--Hawking, Boulware, and Unruh vacua. This exactly solvable model serves as a useful sanity check on my (3+1)-dimensional investigations wherein I had to resort to a mixture of analytic approximations and numerical techniques. Key results in (1+1) dimensions are: (1) NEC is satisfied outside the event horizon for the Hartle--Hawking vacuum, and violated for the Boulware and Unruh vacua. (2) DEC is violated everywhere in the spacetime (for any quantum state, not just the standard vacuum states).Comment: 7 pages, ReV_Te

    Breaking down the delta wing vortex: The role of vorticity in the breakdown process

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    Experimental x-wire measurements of the flowfield above a 70 and 75 deg flat plate delta wing were performed at a Reynolds number of 250,000. Grids were taken normal to the wing at various chordwise locations for angles of attack of 20 and 30 deg. Axial and azimuthal vorticity distributions were derived from the velocity fields. The dependence of circulation on distance from the vortex core and on chordwise location was also examined. The effects of nondimensionalization in comparison with other experimental data is made. The results indicate that the circulation distribution scales with the local semispan and grows in a nearly linear fashion in the chordwise direction. The spanwise distribution of axial vorticity is severely altered through the breakdown. The axial vorticity components with a negative sense, such as that found in the secondary vortex, seem to remain unaffected by changes in wind sweep or angle of attack, in direct contrast to the positive components. In addition, the inclusion of the local wing geometry into a previously derived correlation parameter allows the circulation of growing leading edge vortex flows to be reduced into a single curve

    Cosmological milestones and energy conditions

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    Until recently, the physically relevant singularities occurring in FRW cosmologies had traditionally been thought to be limited to the "big bang", and possibly a "big crunch". However, over the last few years, the zoo of cosmological singularities considered in the literature has become considerably more extensive, with "big rips" and "sudden singularities" added to the mix, as well as renewed interest in non-singular cosmological events such as "bounces" and "turnarounds". In this talk, we present an extensive catalogue of such cosmological milestones, both at the kinematical and dynamical level. First, using generalized power series, purely kinematical definitions of these cosmological events are provided in terms of the behaviour of the scale factor a(t). The notion of a "scale-factor singularity" is defined, and its relation to curvature singularities (polynomial and differential) is explored. Second, dynamical information is extracted by using the Friedmann equations (without assuming even the existence of any equation of state) to place constraints on whether or not the classical energy conditions are satisfied at the cosmological milestones. Since the classification is extremely general, and modulo certain technical assumptions complete, the corresponding results are to a high degree model-independent.Comment: 8 pages, 1 table, conference proceedings for NEB XII conference in Nafplio, Greec

    The Hubble series: Convergence properties and redshift variables

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    In cosmography, cosmokinetics, and cosmology it is quite common to encounter physical quantities expanded as a Taylor series in the cosmological redshift z. Perhaps the most well-known exemplar of this phenomenon is the Hubble relation between distance and redshift. However, we now have considerable high-z data available, for instance we have supernova data at least back to redshift z=1.75. This opens up the theoretical question as to whether or not the Hubble series (or more generally any series expansion based on the z-redshift) actually converges for large redshift? Based on a combination of mathematical and physical reasoning, we argue that the radius of convergence of any series expansion in z is less than or equal to 1, and that z-based expansions must break down for z>1, corresponding to a universe less than half its current size. Furthermore, we shall argue on theoretical grounds for the utility of an improved parameterization y=z/(1+z). In terms of the y-redshift we again argue that the radius of convergence of any series expansion in y is less than or equal to 1, so that y-based expansions are likely to be good all the way back to the big bang y=1, but that y-based expansions must break down for y<-1, now corresponding to a universe more than twice its current size.Comment: 15 pages, 2 figures, accepted for publication in Classical and Quantum Gravit

    Sonoluminescence and the QED vacuum

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    In this talk I shall describe an extension of the quantum-vacuum approach to sonoluminescence proposed several years ago by J.Schwinger. We shall first consider a model calculation based on Bogolubov coefficients relating the QED vacuum in the presence of an expanded bubble to that in the presence of a collapsed bubble. In this way we shall derive an estimate for the spectrum and total energy emitted. This latter will be shown to be proportional to the volume of space over which the refractive index changes, as Schwinger predicted. After this preliminary check we shall deal with the physical constraints that any viable dynamical model for SL has to satisfy in order to fit the experimental data. We shall emphasize the importance of the timescale of the change in refractive index. This discussion will led us to propose a somewhat different version of dynamical Casimir effect in which the change in volume of the bubble is no longer the only source for the change in the refractive index.Comment: 15 pages, 1 figure, uses sprocl.sty. Talk at the 4th Workshop on Quantum Field Theory Under the Influence of External Conditions, Leipzig, 14-18 September, 199
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