25,072 research outputs found

### Quantum Interest in (3+1) dimensional Minkowski space

The so-called "Quantum Inequalities", and the "Quantum Interest Conjecture",
use quantum field theory to impose significant restrictions on the temporal
distribution of the energy density measured by a time-like observer,
potentially preventing the existence of exotic phenomena such as "Alcubierre
warp-drives" or "traversable wormholes". Both the quantum inequalities and the
quantum interest conjecture can be reduced to statements concerning the
existence or non-existence of bound states for a certain one-dimensional
quantum mechanical pseudo-Hamiltonian. Using this approach, we shall provide a
simple proof of one version of the Quantum Interest Conjecture in (3+1)
dimensional Minkowski space.Comment: V1: 8 pages, revtex4; V2: 10 pages, some technical changes in details
of the argument, no change in physics conclusions, this version essentially
identical to published versio

### Analogue model for quantum gravity phenomenology

So called "analogue models" use condensed matter systems (typically
hydrodynamic) to set up an "effective metric" and to model curved-space quantum
field theory in a physical system where all the microscopic degrees of freedom
are well understood. Known analogue models typically lead to massless minimally
coupled scalar fields. We present an extended "analogue space-time" programme
by investigating a condensed-matter system - in and beyond the hydrodynamic
limit - that is in principle capable of simulating the massive Klein-Gordon
equation in curved spacetime. Since many elementary particles have mass, this
is an essential step in building realistic analogue models, and an essential
first step towards simulating quantum gravity phenomenology. Specifically, we
consider the class of two-component BECs subject to laser-induced transitions
between the components, and we show that this model is an example for Lorentz
invariance violation due to ultraviolet physics. Furthermore our model suggests
constraints on quantum gravity phenomenology in terms of the "naturalness
problem" and "universality issue".Comment: Talk given at 7th Workshop on Quantum Field Theory Under the
Influence of External Conditions (QFEXT 05), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, 5-9
Sep 200

### Tolman mass, generalized surface gravity, and entropy bounds

In any static spacetime the quasi-local Tolman mass contained within a volume
can be reduced to a Gauss-like surface integral involving the flux of a
suitably defined generalized surface gravity. By introducing some basic
thermodynamics and invoking the Unruh effect one can then develop elementary
bounds on the quasi-local entropy that are very similar in spirit to the
holographic bound, and closely related to entanglement entropy.Comment: V1: 4 pages. Uses revtex4-1; V2: Three references added; V3: Some
notational changes for clarity; introductory paragraph rewritten; no physics
changes. This version accepted for publication in Physical Review Letter

### Thin-shell wormholes: Linearization stability

The class of spherically-symmetric thin-shell wormholes provides a
particularly elegant collection of exemplars for the study of traversable
Lorentzian wormholes. In the present paper we consider linearized (spherically
symmetric) perturbations around some assumed static solution of the Einstein
field equations. This permits us to relate stability issues to the (linearized)
equation of state of the exotic matter which is located at the wormhole throat.Comment: 4 pages; ReV_TeX 3.0; one postscript figur

### Comment on "Relativistic Effects of Light in Moving Media with Extremely Low Group Velocity"

In [cond-mat/9906332; Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 822 (2000)] and [physics/9906038;
Phys. Rev. A 60, 4301 (1999)] Leonhardt and Piwnicki have presented an
interesting analysis of how to use a flowing dielectric fluid to generate a
so-called "optical black hole". Qualitatively similar phenomena using
acoustical processes have also been much investigated. Unfortunately there is a
subtle misinterpretation in the Leonhardt-Piwnicki analysis regarding these
"optical black holes": While it is clear that "optical black holes" can
certainly exist as theoretical constructs, and while the experimental prospects
for actually building them in the laboratory are excellent, the particular
model geometries that Leonhardt and Piwnicki write down as alleged examples of
"optical black holes" are in fact not black holes at all.Comment: one page comment, uses ReV_TeX 3; discussion clarified; basic
physical results unaltere

### Cosmography: Cosmology without the Einstein equations

How much of modern cosmology is really cosmography? How much of modern
cosmology is independent of the Einstein equations? (Independent of the
Friedmann equations?) These questions are becoming increasingly germane -- as
the models cosmologists use for the stress-energy content of the universe
become increasingly baroque, it behoves us to step back a little and carefully
disentangle cosmological kinematics from cosmological dynamics. The use of
basic symmetry principles (such as the cosmological principle) permits us to do
a considerable amount, without ever having to address the vexatious issues of
just how much "dark energy", "dark matter", "quintessence", and/or "phantom
matter" is needed in order to satisfy the Einstein equations. This is the
sub-sector of cosmology that Weinberg refers to as "cosmography", and in this
article I will explore the extent to which cosmography is sufficient for
analyzing the Hubble law and so describing many of the features of the universe
around us.Comment: 7 pages; uses iopart.cls setstack.sty. Based on a talk presented at
ACRGR4, the 4th Australasian Conference on General Relativity and
Gravitation, Monash University, Melbourne, January 2004. To appear in the
proceedings, in General Relativity and Gravitatio

### Gravitational vacuum polarization III: Energy conditions in the (1+1) Schwarzschild spacetime

Building on a pair of earlier papers, I investigate the various point-wise
and averaged energy conditions for the quantum stress-energy tensor
corresponding to a conformally-coupled massless scalar field in the in the
(1+1)-dimensional Schwarzschild spacetime. Because the stress-energy tensors
are analytically known, I can get exact results for the Hartle--Hawking,
Boulware, and Unruh vacua. This exactly solvable model serves as a useful
sanity check on my (3+1)-dimensional investigations wherein I had to resort to
a mixture of analytic approximations and numerical techniques. Key results in
(1+1) dimensions are: (1) NEC is satisfied outside the event horizon for the
Hartle--Hawking vacuum, and violated for the Boulware and Unruh vacua. (2) DEC
is violated everywhere in the spacetime (for any quantum state, not just the
standard vacuum states).Comment: 7 pages, ReV_Te

### Tolman wormholes violate the strong energy condition

For an arbitrary Tolman wormhole, unconstrained by symmetry, we shall define
the bounce in terms of a three-dimensional edgeless achronal spacelike
hypersurface of minimal volume. (Zero trace for the extrinsic curvature plus a
"flare-out" condition.) This enables us to severely constrain the geometry of
spacetime at and near the bounce and to derive general theorems regarding
violations of the energy conditions--theorems that do not involve geodesic
averaging but nevertheless apply to situations much more general than the
highly symmetric FRW-based subclass of Tolman wormholes. [For example: even
under the mildest of hypotheses, the strong energy condition (SEC) must be
violated.] Alternatively, one can dispense with the minimal volume condition
and define a generic bounce entirely in terms of the motion of test particles
(future-pointing timelike geodesics), by looking at the expansion of their
timelike geodesic congruences. One re-confirms that the SEC must be violated at
or near the bounce. In contrast, it is easy to arrange for all the other
standard energy conditions to be satisfied.Comment: 8 pages, ReV-TeX 3.

### Geometric structure of the generic static traversable wormhole throat

Traversable wormholes have traditionally been viewed as intrinsically
topological entities in some multiply connected spacetime. Here, we show that
topology is too limited a tool to accurately characterize a generic traversable
wormhole: in general one needs geometric information to detect the presence of
a wormhole, or more precisely to locate the wormhole throat. For an arbitrary
static spacetime we shall define the wormhole throat in terms of a
2-dimensional constant-time hypersurface of minimal area. (Zero trace for the
extrinsic curvature plus a "flare-out" condition.) This enables us to severely
constrain the geometry of spacetime at the wormhole throat and to derive
generalized theorems regarding violations of the energy conditions-theorems
that do not involve geodesic averaging but nevertheless apply to situations
much more general than the spherically symmetric Morris-Thorne traversable
wormhole. [For example: the null energy condition (NEC), when suitably weighted
and integrated over the wormhole throat, must be violated.] The major technical
limitation of the current approach is that we work in a static spacetime-this
is already a quite rich and complicated system.Comment: 25 pages; plain LaTeX; uses epsf.sty (four encapsulated postscript
figures

- …