6 research outputs found

    Paraoxonase activity in metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents

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    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a collection of various interrelated risk factors that appear to have an impact as development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVDs). Epidemic of childhood and adolescent’s obesity has increased interest in the metabolic syndrome (MS) due to the potential projection into adulthood. The prevalence of MS in adolescents has been estimated to be 6.7% in young adults and 4.2% in adolescents. We aimed to study the MetS in children and adolescents with respect to metabolic changes. Methods: The international Diabetes Federation criteria were used for the selection of cases. Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was done using MyStat statistical software. Results: Serum PON1 arylesterase (ARE) and lactonase (LACT) activities were found to be reduced significantly in patients with MetS than in controls. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between PON1 activities and body mass index. Area under curve (AUC) found to increase from HDL to PON1 ARE to PON1 LACT. Conclusions: From the present study, it is clear that in children and adolescents, reduction in PON1 activities in MetS is mainly due either to abnormalities with synthesis or secretion of HDL cholesterol or oxidative stress as a consequence of excess production of the free radicals. This study also iterates that it is the quality and not the quantity of HDL cholesterol which is important while studying the pathophysiology of MetS

    Trends of Poisoning Cases in Tertiary Care Teaching Hospitals in Western Indian Population

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    Background: Any substance, which makes life better, if not used wisely and with proper care, would become dangerous to human life. These chemical substances can be termed poisons. A poison can be defined as a substance (solid, liquid, or gas), which if introduced into a living body or brought into contact with any part thereof would produce disease or even death by its constitutional or local effects or both. Pattern of poisoning in a particular region depends on various factors like availability and access to the poison, socioeconomic status of an individual, educational status, knowledge on pesticides, and their proper usage. In India, due to variations in geographical conditions and differences in religious and cultural practices, the incidence and pattern of poisoning vary from place to place, hence it is better to perform regional studies periodically to recognize the extent and evolution of the problem.Methods: This is a cross-sectional and observational study, which was conducted in tertiary care teaching institutes in Western India. The study includes 318 deceased persons due to poison consumption brought for postmortem examination. Results: Incidence of death due to poisoning was more in the third (31.7%) and second decade (22.6%) of life as compared to both extremes of age. The majority of victims were males (64.2%) as compared to females (35.8%). It was also observed that most victims belonged to lower socioeconomic class (58.8%) with educational status from illiteracy to primary education. Majority were farmers commonly due to insecticidal poisoning.Conclusion: Pattern of poisoning in the present study corresponds with the pattern found in most other studies. Majority of victims were male and agricultural poisons were the most common type. Our study suggests that establishment of poison information centers, availability of antidotes in rural area, and creating awareness among people help effectively to resolve the problem

    Paraoxonase in Nervous System

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    The paraoxonase (PON) family consists of—PON1, PON2 and PON3 which are anti-oxidative, any dysfunction in their action, has been suggested to play a role in the pathobiology of diseases having a chronic inflammatory component. PON1 is the most studied which has paraoxonase, arylesterase, thiolactonase, and anti-oxidant actions. Studies have shown the association between lowered PON1 activity and increased incidence of ischemic stroke, dementia, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It may occur due to increased oxidative stress and/or prolonged exposure to organophosphates, and reduced capacity of the body to counter these stresses due to reduced PON1 function. PON2 has arylesterase, lactonase, and antioxidant properties. Under-expression of PON2 is associated with Parkinson Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and over-expression with tumors with glioblastoma. Various mechanisms have been proposed for the role of PON2 in the pathobiology of the said diseases. PON3 is least studied. The PON family, to some extent, interacts with acetylcholine esterase (AChE), as both share the same locus, and PONs degrade the inhibitors of AChE, especially the organophosphates. This could probably have significant role in the development of Parkinson disease and the prognosis of the treatment of Alzheimer disease by AChE inhibitors


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    A newborn with a unique condition, known as “collodion baby,” is born with a rare translucent skin sheet that resembles parchment. This condition is extremely uncommon, occurring in approximately 1 out of 3,00,000 live births. Symptoms may include a collodion membrane with cracks, ectropion and eclabium. The shedding of the membrane can raise the risk of dehydration and infection


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    ABSTRACT Objective: An important predictor for infant survival is birth weight. Normal fetal growth is related to various intrauterine factors. Low birth weight is thought to have relation with oxidative stress which plays an important role in reducing the birth weight. Among the paraoxonase family PON1 protects LDL and HDL from the lipid peroxidation. This is HDL associated enzyme having antioxidant property. We aimed to evaluate the arylesterase and lactonase activity of PON1 in cord blood in relation to birth weight. We hypothesized that cord blood PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activities will be compromised in neonates having low birth weight. Methods: We included 80 neonates born in our hospital irrespective of mode of delivery as 40 cases and 40 controls. PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activity were measured using spectrophotometer. Results: Serum arylesterase activity decreased significantly in low birth weight babies (p<0.05). Linear regression analysis (R=0.595) indicates significant correlation between arylesterase and birth weight. Serum lactonase activity of PON1 also gets reduced in low birth weight babies. Its linear regression analysis showed (R=0.716) suggesting significant correlation between lactonase and birth weight. Conclusion: Reduced PON1 activity can be explained on the basis of ER stress and atherogenic changes in the placental circulation. Ours is the first study in cord blood paraoxonase activities in relation to birth weight. As the sample in our study is cord blood, it is essentially a noninvasive one. Further studies are needed in this direction to assess the effect of the oxidative stress on fetus through cord blood in its long term prospective. Key Words: Paraoxonase1, arylesterase, lactonase, cord blood, low birth weight Conflict of Interest: There is no conflict of interest with any financial organization regarding the material discussed in the manuscript. ÖZE