11,587 research outputs found

    An examination of atmospheric lids during COPS

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    Copyright @ 2009 E.Schweizerbart Science PublishersThe understanding of the nature, origin and prevalence of atmospheric lids is low. There is, therefore, an opportunity to contribute significantly to this area of meteorology - this is the goal of this work. The context for this paper is the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS). The COPS observational campaign, which was undertaken in 2007, was based around the Black Forest region with the aim of improving precipitation forecasts in low mountainous regions. However, the project also represents a great data archive with which to analyse isolated features, such as atmospheric lids. In short, lids play a vital role in the development of convective storms. For example, evidence from the Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP), which was run in the UK in 2005, has shown that lids are important not only in determining whether a storm occurs but also when and where they develop and how intense they are – sometimes, counterintuitively, they appear to increase the intensity. This extended abstract is intended as a brief overview of the previous literature on lids in order to place the work presented at ICAM-2009 in the wider scientific context.This work is funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)

    Phase locked phase modulator including a voltage controlled oscillator Patent

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    Phase locked phase modulation system with voltage controlled oscillator for final phase linearit

    Pultrusion process characterization

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    Pultrusion is a process through which high-modulus, lightweight composite structural members such as beams, truss components, stiffeners, etc., are manufactured. The pultrusion process, though a well-developed processing art, lacks a fundamental scientific understanding. The objective here was to determine, both experimentally and analytically, the process parameters most important in characterizing and optimizing the pultrusion of uniaxial fibers. The effects of process parameter interactions were experimentally examined as a function of the pultruded product properties. A numerical description based on these experimental results was developed. An analytical model of the pultrusion process was also developed. The objective of the modeling effort was the formulation of a two-dimensional heat transfer model and development of solutions for the governing differential equations using the finite element method

    Dielectric Breakdown Strength of Polyethylene Nanocomposites

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    The term “nanometric dielectrics” or simply “nanodielectrics” was introduced in 1994 when Lewis [1] anticipated the potential property changes that would benefit electrical insulation due to nano-sized inclusion. Such materials, containing homogenous dispersion of small amount (normally less than 10wt%) of nanoparticles (with at least one dimension in nanometre range) in host matrix, are of specific dielectric interest. Although much effort has been put forth to investigate the potential dielectric benefit of such newly emerging materials, many uncertainties remain unanswered, and much remains to be explored [2]. Current experimental work is to investigate the preparation of nanodielectrics via solution blending approach. Polyethylene blend composed of 20wt% of high density polyethylene (HDPE) in low density polyethylene (LDPE) is proposed as the base polymer, with varying content of nanosilica (between 0wt% and 10wt%) as the fillers. Although expensive, solution blending method, when compared with melt compounding method, is expected to provide better dispersion of nanoparticles in polymers, thus providing qualitative data in understanding the behaviour of nanodielectrics [3]. Upon successful preparation of polyethylene nanocomposites, breakdown strength based on ASTM Standard D149-87 is to be conducted to determine the feasibility of such dielectric materials in engineering point of view. Figure 1 illustrates the schematic diagram of the breakdown test configuration. The samples are placed between two 6.3mm diameter steel ball bearings immersed in silicone fluid. AC voltage at a preset ramp rate will be applied until the samples fail and the values of breakdown voltages will be recorded and analysed using two-parameter Weibull distribution. Based upon top-down research approach, the underlying physics and chemistry associated with dielectric property changes will then be explored

    Evolution with Drifting Targets

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    We consider the question of the stability of evolutionary algorithms to gradual changes, or drift, in the target concept. We define an algorithm to be resistant to drift if, for some inverse polynomial drift rate in the target function, it converges to accuracy 1 -- \epsilon , with polynomial resources, and then stays within that accuracy indefinitely, except with probability \epsilon , at any one time. We show that every evolution algorithm, in the sense of Valiant (2007; 2009), can be converted using the Correlational Query technique of Feldman (2008), into such a drift resistant algorithm. For certain evolutionary algorithms, such as for Boolean conjunctions, we give bounds on the rates of drift that they can resist. We develop some new evolution algorithms that are resistant to significant drift. In particular, we give an algorithm for evolving linear separators over the spherically symmetric distribution that is resistant to a drift rate of O(\epsilon /n), and another algorithm over the more general product normal distributions that resists a smaller drift rate. The above translation result can be also interpreted as one on the robustness of the notion of evolvability itself under changes of definition. As a second result in that direction we show that every evolution algorithm can be converted to a quasi-monotonic one that can evolve from any starting point without the performance ever dipping significantly below that of the starting point. This permits the somewhat unnatural feature of arbitrary performance degradations to be removed from several known robustness translations

    Dividends, stock repurchases and signaling: evidence from U.S. panel data

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    This paper exploits yearly accounting data from 1977 to 1994 to test the relative signaling power of dividends and net stock repurchases. The specification controls for potential agency cost and asset dissipation effects. Specifically, we regress changes in future income before extraordinary items on changes in dividends, changes in net stock repurchases, and a host of control variables. We also split the sample at 1981 to measure the impact of changes in the relative taxation of distribution methods. For the full twenty-year sample, only dividend changes are correlated with changes in future income. Moreover, the dividend coefficient and the repurchases coefficient differ statistically different in every future income equation. Splitting the sample reveals that the pre-1981 subsample drives the full-sample results. Put another way, the empirical link between changes in dividends and changes in future income vanishes just as a revision of the tax law reduced the tax disadvantage of dividend distributions. This evidence supports the notion that, at least for a period in time, firms deliberately exposed shareholders to punitive taxation to signal favorable prospects.Corporate governance

    Locked oscillator phase modulator, appendix d final report

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    Design parameters for linear phase modulation of locked oscillato