17 research outputs found

    Effect of intermittent fasting on circulating inflammatory markers in obesity: A review of human trials

    Get PDF
    Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation. Weight loss, by means of dietary restriction, has been shown to reduce systemic inflammation. Intermittent fasting has recently gained popularity as a weight loss diet, but its effects on inflammatory markers in individuals with obesity have yet to be summarized. Accordingly, this review examined how the two main forms of intermittent fasting, i.e., time restricted eating (TRE) and alternate day fasting (ADF), impact body weight and key circulating inflammatory markers (i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)), in adults with obesity. Results from this review reveal that TRE with various eating window durations (4–10 h per day) has no effect on circulating levels of CRP, TNF-alpha or IL-6, with 1–5% weight loss. As for ADF, reductions in CRP concentrations were noted when >6% weight loss was achieved. However, ADF had no effect on TNF-alpha or IL-6 concentrations, with this degree of weight loss. Thus, intermittent fasting has little or no effect on key inflammatory markers, but more research is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings

    A novel cardiovascular magnetic resonance risk score for predicting mortality following surgical aortic valve replacement

    Get PDF
    The increasing prevalence of patients with aortic stenosis worldwide highlights a clinical need for improved and accurate prediction of clinical outcomes following surgery. We investigated patient demographic and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) characteristics to formulate a dedicated risk score estimating long-term survival following surgery. We recruited consecutive patients undergoing CMR with gadolinium administration prior to surgical aortic valve replacement from 2003 to 2016 in two UK centres. The outcome was overall mortality. A total of 250 patients were included (68 ± 12 years, male 185 (60%), with pre-operative mean aortic valve area 0.93 ± 0.32cm2, LVEF 62 ± 17%) and followed for 6.0 ± 3.3 years. Sixty-one deaths occurred, with 10-year mortality of 23.6%. Multivariable analysis showed that increasing age (HR 1.04, P = 0.005), use of antiplatelet therapy (HR 0.54, P = 0.027), presence of infarction or midwall late gadolinium enhancement (HR 1.52 and HR 2.14 respectively, combined P = 0.12), higher indexed left ventricular stroke volume (HR 0.98, P = 0.043) and higher left atrial ejection fraction (HR 0.98, P = 0.083) associated with mortality and developed a risk score with good discrimination. This is the first dedicated risk prediction score for patients with aortic stenosis undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement providing an individualised estimate for overall mortality. This model can help clinicians individualising medical and surgical care

    Protocol for measuring intrahepatic triglyceride content in adults with non-alcohol fatty liver disease

    No full text
    Summary: Here, we present a protocol for conducting magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) to measure intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content in adults with non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We describe steps for screening patients for NAFLD, MRI-PDFF scanning, and using MRI-PDFF data to quantify IHTG. This protocol can be repeated sequentially and used in weight loss trials. However, it is limited to patients with NAFLD as it does not assess non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or hepatic fibrosis.For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Ezpeleta et al. (2023).1 : Publisher’s note: Undertaking any experimental protocol requires adherence to local institutional guidelines for laboratory safety and ethics

    A molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of Greek Aegean Island sand flies of the genus Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Get PDF
    The genus Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) comprises a group of small winged insect species of medical importance. To date, ten species of Phlebotomus are known to be present in Greece; yet their evolutionary history is poorly studied due to the lack of comprehensive phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. Herein, we aim to clarify the phylogenetic relationships amongst the local species collected from 12 Aegean Islands, Cyprus and Turkey; and to identify which of the palaeogeographic events may have influenced their biogeographic history. Our analyses revealed for the first time the presence of P. cf. major and P. sergenti in the Aegean Islands. All studied local species were retrieved as monophyletic and the mtDNA and nDNA phylogenetic trees indicated a plausible mitochondrial introgression between the closely related species of the P. major complex. From a palaeogeographic viewpoint, the major driving force that shaped the biogeographic history of the studied Phlebotomus species seems to be the dispersal that started in the Oligocene epoch, followed by several speciation events that occurred at the end of Miocene and the Plio-Pleistocene, including multiple dispersal events of Asiatic origin. The Messinian Salinity Crisis, the bimodal Mediterranean climate, and the glacial and interglacial periods were identified as key drivers for the diversification of the local species of Phlebotomus

    Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Greek Aegean Islands: Ecological Approaches

    No full text
    Background Blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. Different Phlebotomus species transmit different Leishmania species causing leishmaniases which are neglected diseases emerging/reemerging in new regions. Thirteen sand fly species, ten belonging to the medically important genus Phlebotomus and three belonging to Sergentomyia are known in Greece. An increasing number of human and dog cases are reported each year from all parts of the country including the Aegean Islands. However, no previous study has been conducted on the sand fly fauna on the islands, except for Rhodes and Samos. The aim of this study was to investigate sand fly species in eleven small Aegean islands; to understand species-specific relationships with environmental and climatic factors and to compare sand fly community parameters among islands. A risk analysis was carried out for each species using climatic and environmental variables. Results Nine sand fly species: Phlebotomus neglectus, P. tobbi, P. similis, P. simici, P. perfiliewi, P. alexandri, P. papatasi, Sergentomyia minuta and S. dentata, were collected from the islands studied. Phlebotomus (Adlerius) sp. and Sergentomyia sp. specimens were also collected but not identified to the species level. There was a positive effect of distance from the sea on the abundance of P. neglectus, S. minuta and S. dentata, and a negative effect on the abundance of P. tobbi, P. simici and P. similis. In general, temperature preferences of sand fly populations were between 21 and 29 °C. Nevertheless, there were significant differences in terms of temperature and relative humidity preference ranges among species. The most important species found, P. neglectus, was indisputably the most adapted species in the study area with a very high reaction norm, favoring even the lower temperature and humidity ranges. Overall, the sand fly fauna in the islands was very rich but there were differences in species diversity, as indicated by the values of the Shannon-Wiener index, along with evenness and richness of the sand fly fauna between the islands and altitude ranges in the islands. Conclusions The study indicated that the Greek Aegean Islands, however small, maintain a rich sand fly fauna. This includes important vectors of Leishmania spp. representing a risk for parasite transmission to humans and dogs along with the danger of maintaining new Leishmania spp. if introduced to the area. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13071-018-2680-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.PubMedWoSScopu

    Effect of Intermittent Fasting on Reproductive Hormone Levels in Females and Males: A Review of Human Trials

    No full text
    Intermittent fasting is a popular diet for weight loss, but concerns have been raised regarding the effects of fasting on the reproductive health of women and men. Accordingly, we conducted this literature review to clarify the effects of fasting on reproductive hormone levels in humans. Our results suggest that intermittent fasting decreases androgen markers (i.e., testosterone and the free androgen index (FAI)) while increasing sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels in premenopausal females with obesity. This effect was more likely to occur when food consumption was confined to earlier in the day (eating all food before 4 pm). In contrast, fasting did not have any effect on estrogen, gonadotropins, or prolactin levels in women. As for men, intermittent fasting reduced testosterone levels in lean, physically active, young males, but it did not affect SHBG concentrations. Interestingly, muscle mass and muscular strength were not negatively affected by these reductions in testosterone. In interpreting these findings, it is important to note that very few studies have been conducted on this topic. Thus, it is difficult to draw solid conclusions at present. From the limited data presented here, it is possible that intermittent fasting may decrease androgen markers in both genders. If this is the case, these results would have varied health implications. On the one hand, fasting may prove to be a valuable tool for treating hyperandrogenism in females with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) by improving menstruation and fertility. On the other hand, fasting may be shown to decrease androgens among males, which could negatively affect metabolic health and libido. More research is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings