94 research outputs found

    Experimentally Validated Pharmacoinformatics Approach to Predict hERG Inhibition Potential of New Chemical Entities

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    The hERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) encoded potassium ion (K+) channel plays a major role in cardiac repolarization. Drug-induced blockade of hERG has been a major cause of potentially lethal ventricular tachycardia termed Torsades de Pointes (TdPs). Therefore, we presented a pharmacoinformatics strategy using combined ligand and structure based models for the prediction of hERG inhibition potential (IC50) of new chemical entities (NCEs) during early stages of drug design and development. Integrated GRid-INdependent Descriptor (GRIND) models, and lipophilic efficiency (LipE), ligand efficiency (LE) guided template selection for the structure based pharmacophore models have been used for virtual screening and subsequent hERG activity (pIC50) prediction of identified hits. Finally selected two hits were experimentally evaluated for hERG inhibition potential (pIC50) using whole cell patch clamp assay. Overall, our results demonstrate a difference of less than ±1.6 log unit between experimentally determined and predicted hERG inhibition potential (IC50) of the selected hits. This revealed predictive ability and robustness of our models and could help in correctly rank the potency order (lower μM to higher nM range) against hERG

    Experimentally Validated Pharmacoinformatics Approach to Predict hERG Inhibition Potential of New Chemical Entities

    Get PDF
    The hERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) encoded potassium ion (K+) channel plays a major role in cardiac repolarization. Drug-induced blockade of hERG has been a major cause of potentially lethal ventricular tachycardia termed Torsades de Pointes (TdPs). Therefore, we presented a pharmacoinformatics strategy using combined ligand and structure based models for the prediction of hERG inhibition potential (IC50) of new chemical entities (NCEs) during early stages of drug design and development. Integrated GRid-INdependent Descriptor (GRIND) models, and lipophilic efficiency (LipE), ligand efficiency (LE) guided template selection for the structure based pharmacophore models have been used for virtual screening and subsequent hERG activity (pIC50) prediction of identified hits. Finally selected two hits were experimentally evaluated for hERG inhibition potential (pIC50) using whole cell patch clamp assay. Overall, our results demonstrate a difference of less than ±1.6 log unit between experimentally determined and predicted hERG inhibition potential (IC50) of the selected hits. This revealed predictive ability and robustness of our models and could help in correctly rank the potency order (lower μM to higher nM range) against hERG

    The N–Terminal Tail of hERG Contains an Amphipathic α–Helix That Regulates Channel Deactivation

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    The cytoplasmic N–terminal domain of the human ether–a–go–go related gene (hERG) K+ channel is critical for the slow deactivation kinetics of the channel. However, the mechanism(s) by which the N–terminal domain regulates deactivation remains to be determined. Here we show that the solution NMR structure of the N–terminal 135 residues of hERG contains a previously described Per–Arnt–Sim (PAS) domain (residues 26–135) as well as an amphipathic α–helix (residues 13–23) and an initial unstructured segment (residues 2–9). Deletion of residues 2–25, only the unstructured segment (residues 2–9) or replacement of the α–helix with a flexible linker all result in enhanced rates of deactivation. Thus, both the initial flexible segment and the α–helix are required but neither is sufficient to confer slow deactivation kinetics. Alanine scanning mutagenesis identified R5 and G6 in the initial flexible segment as critical for slow deactivation. Alanine mutants in the helical region had less dramatic phenotypes. We propose that the PAS domain is bound close to the central core of the channel and that the N–terminal α–helix ensures that the flexible tail is correctly orientated for interaction with the activation gating machinery to stabilize the open state of the channel

    Temperature Effects on Kinetics of K V 11.1 Drug Block Have Important Consequences for In Silico Proarrhythmic Risk Prediction s

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    ABSTRACT Drug block of voltage-gated potassium channel subtype 11.1 human ether-a-go-go related gene (K v 11.1) (hERG) channels, encoded by the KCNH2 gene, is associated with reduced repolarization of the cardiac action potential and is the predominant cause of acquired long QT syndrome that can lead to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Current safety guidelines require that potency of K V 11.1 block is assessed in the preclinical phase of drug development. However, not all drugs that block K V 11.1 are proarrhythmic, meaning that screening on the basis of equilibrium measures of block can result in high attrition of potentially low-risk drugs. The basis of the next generation of drug-screening approaches is set to be in silico risk prediction, informed by in vitro mechanistic descriptions of drug binding, including measures of the kinetics of block. A critical issue in this regard is characterizing the temperature dependence of drug binding. Specifically, it is important to address whether kinetics relevant to physiologic temperatures can be inferred or extrapolated from in vitro data gathered at room temperature in high-throughout systems. Here we present the first complete study of the temperature-dependent kinetics of block and unblock of a proarrhythmic drug, cisapride, to K V 11.1. Our data highlight a complexity to binding that manifests at higher temperatures and can be explained by accumulation of an intermediate, non-blocking encounter-complex. These results suggest that for cisapride, physiologically relevant kinetic parameters cannot be simply extrapolated from those measured at lower temperatures; rather, data gathered at physiologic temperatures should be used to constrain in silico models that may be used for proarrhythmic risk prediction

    The S4–S5 Linker Acts as a Signal Integrator for hERG K+ Channel Activation and Deactivation Gating

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    Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) K+ channels have unusual gating kinetics. Characterised by slow activation/deactivation but rapid inactivation/recovery from inactivation, the unique gating kinetics underlie the central role hERG channels play in cardiac repolarisation. The slow activation and deactivation kinetics are regulated in part by the S4–S5 linker, which couples movement of the voltage sensor domain to opening of the activation gate at the distal end of the inner helix of the pore domain. It has also been suggested that cytosolic domains may interact with the S4–S5 linker to regulate activation and deactivation kinetics. Here, we show that the solution structure of a peptide corresponding to the S4–S5 linker of hERG contains an amphipathic helix. The effects of mutations at the majority of residues in the S4–S5 linker of hERG were consistent with the previously identified role in coupling voltage sensor movement to the activation gate. However, mutations to Ser543, Tyr545, Gly546 and Ala548 had more complex phenotypes indicating that these residues are involved in additional interactions. We propose a model in which the S4–S5 linker, in addition to coupling VSD movement to the activation gate, also contributes to interactions that stabilise the closed state and a separate set of interactions that stabilise the open state. The S4–S5 linker therefore acts as a signal integrator and plays a crucial role in the slow deactivation kinetics of the channel
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