12 research outputs found

    De uitdaging van eenvoud

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    An experimental parametric study on natural circulation BWRs stability

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    A parametric study on the stability performance of a prototypical natural circulation BWR is performed with the downscaled GENESIS facility. The GENESIS design is based on fluid-to-fluid modeling and includes an artificial void reactivity feedback (VRF) system for simulating the neutronic-thermal-hydraulic coupling. In this work a more sophisticated VRF system than its predecessors is developed and implemented. The VRF allowed investigating different configurations relevant for the reactor design. The experiments show that changing the fuel rods diameter to a half (doubling) decreases (increases) the stability performance of the system while the resonance frequency increases (decreases). In addition, it is found that the use of MOX fuels in a BWR slightly decreases the stability performance of the reactor. On top of this, it is clearly observed that at least two oscillatory modes exists in the system, the thermal-hydraulic mode (associated to density waves traveling thorough the core plus chimney section) and the so-called reactor mode (related to density waves travelling thorough the core). It is observed that the last one is amplified by increasing (in an absolute sense) the void reactivity feedback coefficient. Details regarding the interplay between these oscillatory modes is also given.Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.RST/Reactor Physics and Nuclear MaterialsExecutive boar

    Analysis of the running-in phase of a passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor

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    Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work publicRST/Reactor Physics and Nuclear Material

    Conceptual design of a passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor

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    Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work publicRST/Reactor Physics and Nuclear Material

    Characteristics of turbulent heat transfer in an annulus at supercritical pressure

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    Heat transfer to fluids at supercritical pressure is different from heat transfer at lower pressures due to strong variations of the thermophysical properties with the temperature. We present and analyze results of direct numerical simulations of heat transfer to turbulent CO2 at 8 MPa in an annulus. Periodic streamwise conditions are imposed so that mean streamwise acceleration due to variations in the density does not occur. The inner wall of the annulus is kept at a temperature of 323 K, while the outer wall is kept at a temperature of 303 K. The pseudocritical temperature Tpc=307.7 K, which is the temperature where the thermophysical properties vary the most, can be found close to the inner wall. This work is a continuation of an earlier study, in which turbulence attenuation due to the variable thermophysical properties of a fluid at supercritical pressure was studied. In the current work, the direct effects of variations in the specific heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, density, and the molecular Prandtl number on heat transfer are investigated using different techniques. Variations in the specific heat capacity cause significant differences between the mean nondimensionalized temperature and enthalpy profiles. Compared to the enthalpy fluctuations, temperature fluctuations are enhanced in regions with low specific heat capacity and diminished in regions with a large specific heat capacity. The thermal diffusivity causes local changes to the mean enthalpy gradient, which in turn affects molecular conduction of thermal energy. The turbulent heat flux is directly affected by the density, but it is also affected by the mean molecular Prandtl number and attenuated or enhanced turbulent motions. In general, enthalpy fluctuations are enhanced in regions with a large mean molecular Prandtl number, which enhances the turbulent heat flux. While analyzing the Nusselt numbers under different conditions it is found that heat transfer deterioration or enhancement can occur without streamwise acceleration or mixed convection conditions. Finally, through a combination of a relation between the Nusselt number and the radial heat fluxes, a quadrant analysis of the turbulent heat flux, and conditional averaging of the heat flux quadrants, it is shown that heat transfer from a heated surface depends on the density and the molecular Prandtl number of both hot fluid moving away from a heated surface as well as the thermophysical properties of relatively cold fluid moving towards it.Energy TechnologyRST/Reactor Physics and Nuclear MaterialsExecutive boardProcess and Energ

    Turbulence attenuation in simultaneously heated and cooled annular flows at supercritical pressure

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    Heated or cooled fluids at supercritical pressure show large variations in thermophysical properties, such as the density, dynamic viscosity and molecular Prandtl number, which strongly influence turbulence characteristics. To investigate this, direct numerical simulations were performed of a turbulent flow at supercritical pressure (CO2 at 8 MPa) in an annulus with a hot inner wall and a cold outer wall. The pseudo-critical temperature lies close to the inner wall, which results in strong thermophysical property variations in that region. The turbulent shear stress and the turbulent intensities significantly decrease near the hot inner wall, but increase near the cold outer wall, which can be partially attributed to the mean dynamic viscosity and density stratification. This leads to decreased production of turbulent kinetic energy near the inner wall and vice versa near the outer wall. However, by analysing a transport equation for the coherent streak flank strength, it was found that thermophysical property fluctuations significantly affect streak evolution. Near the hot wall, thermal expansion and buoyancy tend to decrease streak coherence, while the viscosity gradient that exists across the streaks interacts with mean shear to act as either a source or a sink in the evolution equation for the coherent streak flank strength. The formation of streamwise vortices on the other hand is hindered by the torque that is the result of the kinetic energy and density gradients. Near the cold wall, the results are reversed, i.e. the coherent streak flank strength and the streamwise vortices are enhanced due to the variable density and dynamic viscosity. The results show that not only the mean stratification but also the large instantaneous thermophysical property variations that occur in heated or cooled fluids at supercritical pressure have a significant effect on turbulent structures that are responsible for the self-regeneration process in near-wall turbulence. Thus, instantaneous density and dynamic viscosity fluctuations are responsible for decreased (or increased) turbulent motions in heated (or cooled) fluids at supercritical pressure.Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.Energy TechnologyRST/Reactor Physics and Nuclear MaterialsExecutive boardProcess and Energ

    Particle image velocimetry measurements of a thermally convective supercritical fluid

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    Abstract: The feasibility of particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a thermally convective supercritical fluid was investigated. Hereto a Rayleigh–Bénard convection flow was studied at pressure and temperature above their critical values. The working fluid chosen was trifluoromethane because of its experimentally accessible critical point. The experiments were characterized by strong differences in the fluid density from the bottom to the top of the cell, where the maximum relative density difference was between 17 and 42%. These strong density changes required a careful selection of tracer particles and introduced optical distortions associated with strong refractive index changes. A preliminary background oriented schlieren (BOS) study confirmed that the tracer particles remained visible despite significant local blurring. BOS also allowed estimating the velocity error associated with optical distortions in the PIV measurements. Then, the instantaneous velocity and time-averaged velocity distributions were measured in the mid plane of the cubical cell. Main difficulties were due to blurring and optical distortions in the boundary layer and thermal plumes regions. An a posteriori estimation of the PIV measurement uncertainty was done with the statistical correlation method proposed by Wieneke (Measure Sci Technol 26:074002, 2015). It allowed to conclude that the velocity values were reliably measured in about 75% of the domain. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.RST/Reactor Physics and Nuclear MaterialsFluid MechanicsExecutive boar

    Experimental velocity study of non-Boussinesq Rayleigh-Bénard convection

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    RST/Reactor Physics and Nuclear MaterialsFluid Mechanic
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