3 research outputs found

    Inflammatory bowel disease in primary immunodeficiency disorders is a heterogeneous clinical entity requiring an individualized treatment strategy: A systematic review

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    Objective: To describe the prevalence, clinical presentation and current treatment regimens of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). Methods: A systematic review was conducted. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. Results: A total of 838 articles were identified, of which 36 were included in this review. The prevalence of IBD in PIDs ranges between 3.4% and 61.2%, depending on the underlying PID. Diarrhea and abdominal pain were reported in 64.3% and 52.4% of the patients, respectively. Colon ulceration was the most frequent finding on endoscopic evaluation, while cryptitis, granulomas, ulcerations and neutrophilic/lymphocytic infiltrates were the most frequently reported histopathological abnormalities. Described treatment regimens included oral corticosteroids and other oral immunosuppressive agents, including mesalazine, azathioprine and cyclosporin, leading to clinical improvement in the majority of patients. In case of treatment failure, biological therapies including TNF- α blocking agents, are considered. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of IBD in patients with PID is high, but varies between different PIDs. Physicians should be aware of these complications and focus on characteristic symptoms to reduce diagnostic delay and delay in initiation of treatment. Treatment of IBD in PIDs depends on severity of symptoms and may differ between various PIDs based on distinct underlying pathogenesis. An individualized diagnostic and therapeutic approach is therefore warranted

    Comprehensive overview of autoantibody isotype and subclass distribution

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    The presence of autoreactive antibodies is a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases. The effector functions of (auto)antibodies are determined by their constant domain, which defines the antibody isotype and subclass. The most prevalent isotype in serum is IgG, which is often the only isotype used in diagnostic testing. Nevertheless, autoantibody responses can have their own unique isotype/subclass profile. Because comparing autoantibody isotype profiles may yield new insights into disease pathophysiology, here we summarize the isotype/subclass profiles of the most prominent autoantibodies. Despite substantial variation between (and within) autoantibody responses, this unprecedented comparison shows that autoantibodies share distinctive isotype patterns across different diseases. Although most autoantibody responses are dominated by IgG (and mainly IgG1), several specific diseases are characterized by a predominance of IgG4. In other diseases, IgE plays a key role. Importantly, shared features of autoantibody isotype/subclass profiles are seen in clinically unrelated diseases, suggesting potentially common trajectories in response evolution, disease pathogenesis, and treatment response. Isotypes beyond IgG are scarcely investigated in many autoantibody responses, leaving substantial gaps in our understanding of the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases. Future research should address isotype/subclass profiling in more detail and incorporate autoantibody measurements beyond total IgG in disease models and clinical studies
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