161 research outputs found

    A1F-B, a novel CCAAT-binding transcription activator that interacts with the aldolase B promoter

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    AbstractWe describe here a 70 kDa transcription factor A1F-B, which preferentially binds to an element encompassing a CCAAT motif on the rat aldolase B promoter. Comparison of binding specificities, relative molecular masses, and subunit compositions with those of other known CCAAT-binding factors indicated that A1F-B is a novel member of CCAAT-binding factors

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Kernohan\u27s Notch in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: Significance of Coronal Images for Preoperative Diagnosis

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    A 67-year-old man presented with headache and gait disturbance. On admission, he was mildly confused but aroused by verbal stimulus, with normal motor function. A CT scan showed bilateral subdural hematomas (right >> left) and a midline shift to the left. One hour after admission, he suddenly became somnolent and developed right hemiparesis. While repeated CT examinations failed to reveal new findings, coronal MRI clearly depicted the left cerebral peduncle pressed against the free edge of the tentorium. Craniotomy was immediately performed to remove the right chronic subdural hematoma. Soon after the operation, neurological functions were markedly improved. When paradoxical (ipsilateral to the lesion) motor deficit is observed in patients with head injuries, including cases of chronic subdural hematomas, coronal MR imaging and magnetic resonance angiography should be immediately performed to detect Kernohan\u27s notch and to rule out other possible complications, such as diffuse axonal injury or cerebral stroke

    Long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids improve endothelial function with altering microbial flora

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    Fish oil-derived long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids (LCMUFAs) with a carbon chain length longer than 18 units ameliorate cardiovascular risk in mice. In this study, we investigated whether LCMUFAs could improve endothelial functions in mice and humans. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multi-center study, healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either an LCMUFA oil (saury oil) or a control oil (olive and tuna oils) group. Sixty subjects were enrolled and administrated each oil for 4 weeks. For the animal study, ApoE−/− mice were fed a Western diet supplemented with 3% of either gadoleic acid (C20:1) or cetoleic acid (C22:1) for 12 weeks. Participants from the LCMUFA group showed improvements in endothelial function and a lower trimethylamine-N-oxide level, which is a predictor of coronary artery disease. C20:1 and C22:1 oils significantly improved atherosclerotic lesions and plasma levels of several inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF-α. These beneficial effects were consistent with an improvement in the gut microbiota environment, as evident from the decreased ratio of Firmicutes and/ or Bacteroidetes, increase in the abundance of Akkermansia, and upregulation of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-induced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) expression and serum GLP-1 level. These data suggest that LCMUFAs alter the microbiota environment that stimulate the production of SCFAs, resulting in the induction of GLP-1 secretion. Fish oil-derived long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids might thus help to protect against cardiovascular disease

    High-dose Dexamethasone Therapy as the Initial Treatment for Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: Protocol for a Multicenter, Open-label, Single Arm Trial

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    Standard therapy for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has not been established. We are conducting a multicenter, prospective trial to determine the efficacy and safety of short-term, high-dose dexamethasone therapy in ITP patients aged 18-80 years with platelet counts of <20, 000 /μL, or with <50, 000/ μL and bleeding symptoms. The primary endpoints of this trial are the proportion of responses (complete plus partial response) on day 180 (day 46+180) after the completion of the 46-day high-dose dexamethasone therapy. The results of this investigation of the effectiveness and safety of this regimen will be essential for the establishment of standard therapy for ITP

    Management of Occluded Metallic Stents in Malignant Hilar Biliary Stricture

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    Background/Aims: Little is known about the management of occluded multiple metallic stent (MS) deployed in malignant hilar biliary strictures (HBS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the endoscopic management of occluded multiple MSs deployed in HBS. Methodology: Fifty-five patients with unresectable biliary tract carcinoma had multiple MSs inserted due to HBS. The endoscopic intervention through the duodenal papilla was performed on 30 cases that had MS occlusion. The procedure success rate, the survival time after the procedure and the number of endoscopic interventions before death were analyzed, retrospectively. Results: The causes of MS obstruction were tissue ingrowth (n=20), sludge (n=7), tumor overgrowth (n=2), and hemobilia (n=1). Endoscopic cleaning or deployment of plastic stents or metallic stents was performed on these patients and was successfully accomplished only via the transpapillary approach. The survival time after MS obstruction was 219 days. The median number of endoscopic interventions before death was 3. The median interval of endoscopic intervention after the first plastic stent occlusion was 84 days. Conclusions: Our long-term data regarding the endoscopic management of occluded MSs deployed in malignant hilar biliary strictures are acceptable although the patency time of plastic stents deployed after MS occlusion was relatively short

    Cytokeratin 13, Cytokeratin 17, and Ki-67 Expression in Human Acquired Cholesteatoma and Their Correlation With Its Destructive Capacity

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    Objectives Cholesteatoma is a nonneoplastic destructive lesion of the temporal bone with debated pathogenesis and bone resorptive mechanism. Both molecular and cellular events chiefly master its activity. Continued research is necessary to clarify factors related to its aggressiveness. We aimed to investigate the expression of Ki-67, cytokeratin 13 (CK13) and cytokeratin 17 (CK17) in acquired nonrecurrent human cholesteatoma and correlate them with its bone destructive capacity. Methods A prospective quantitative immunohistochemical study was carried out using fresh acquired cholesteatoma tissues (n=19), collected during cholesteatoma surgery. Deep meatal skin tissues from the same patients were used as control (n=8). Cholesteatoma patients were divided into 2 groups and compared (invasive and noninvasive) according to a grading score for bone resorption based upon clinical, radiologic and intraoperative findings. To our knowledge, the role of CK17 in cholesteatoma aggressiveness was first investigated in this paper. Results Both Ki-67 and CK17 were significantly overexpressed in cholesteatoma than control tissues (P<0.001 for both Ki-67 and CK17). In addition, Ki-67 and CK17 were significantly higher in the invasive group than noninvasive group of cholesteatoma (P=0.029, P=0.033, respectively). Furthermore, Ki-67 and CK17 showed a moderate positive correlation with bone erosion scores (r=0.547, P=0.015 and r=0.588, P=0.008, respectively). In terms of CK13, no significant difference was found between cholesteatoma and skin (P=0.766). Conclusion Both Ki-67 and CK17 were overexpressed in cholesteatoma tissue and positively correlated with bone resorption activity. The concept that Ki-67 can be a predictor for aggressiveness of cholesteatoma was supported. In addition, this is the first study demonstrating CK17 as a favoring marker in the aggressiveness of acquired cholesteatoma

    Safety and Quality in the Agricultural Product Chain in Brazil

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    An agriculture-intensive country should be aware of natural toxins, including both mycotoxins and cyanotoxins, which are closely associated with the quality of raw materials, for food safety and industry. The major production chains – corn, wheat, beef, and broiler chicken – are the top components of agribusiness, and they should be tracked by reliable and practical tools. The corn chain is of particular concern in food production; intensive controls, multi-year mycotoxin monitoring, and improved harmless/sustainable management methods for uninterrupted farming in the tropic-subtropics are needed to achieve a long-lasting trend. The rapid control of natural toxins (mycotoxin and cyanotoxin) has focused on immunochemical methods developed with highly specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) matched with chromatographic methods. In parallel, the promising widespread application of non-destructive analytical methods based on NIR (Near Infrared Reflectance) spectroscopy, computer vision and hyperspectral imaging coupled with multivariate analyses have been introduced as an alternative for the prediction of quality and compositional parameters. Rapid quality control and product traceability are discussed, as well as accurate monitoring, which is essential for potentially launching an innovative system for food production in Brazil

    Global Mapping of Cell Type–Specific Open Chromatin by FAIRE-seq Reveals the Regulatory Role of the NFI Family in Adipocyte Differentiation

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    Identification of regulatory elements within the genome is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern cell type–specific gene expression. We generated genome-wide maps of open chromatin sites in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (on day 0 and day 8 of differentiation) and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts using formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements coupled with high-throughput sequencing (FAIRE-seq). FAIRE peaks at the promoter were associated with active transcription and histone modifications of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac. Non-promoter FAIRE peaks were characterized by H3K4me1+/me3-, the signature of enhancers, and were largely located in distal regions. The non-promoter FAIRE peaks showed dynamic change during differentiation, while the promoter FAIRE peaks were relatively constant. Functionally, the adipocyte- and preadipocyte-specific non-promoter FAIRE peaks were, respectively, associated with genes up-regulated and down-regulated by differentiation. Genes highly up-regulated during differentiation were associated with multiple clustered adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks. Among the adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks, 45.3% and 11.7% overlapped binding sites for, respectively, PPARγ and C/EBPα, the master regulators of adipocyte differentiation. Computational motif analyses of the adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks revealed enrichment of a binding motif for nuclear family I (NFI) transcription factors. Indeed, ChIP assay showed that NFI occupy the adipocyte-specific FAIRE peaks and/or the PPARγ binding sites near PPARγ, C/EBPα, and aP2 genes. Overexpression of NFIA in 3T3-L1 cells resulted in robust induction of these genes and lipid droplet formation without differentiation stimulus. Overexpression of dominant-negative NFIA or siRNA–mediated knockdown of NFIA or NFIB significantly suppressed both induction of genes and lipid accumulation during differentiation, suggesting a physiological function of these factors in the adipogenic program. Together, our study demonstrates the utility of FAIRE-seq in providing a global view of cell type–specific regulatory elements in the genome and in identifying transcriptional regulators of adipocyte differentiation

    The regulatory function of the upstream sequence of the beta-conglycinin alpha subunit gene in seed-specific transcription is associated with the presence of the RY sequence

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    β-conglycinin, a major component of seed-storage proteins in soybean, comprises three subunits: α, α', and β. Expression of these genes is spatially regulated in a stringent manner and occurs during seed development. To understand the mechanisms that control expression of the α subunit gene, we analyzed the nucleotide sequence of the 2.9-kb region upstream of the gene. The upstream sequence up to –1357 or a series of its 5'-deleted derivatives was fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene. These reporter gene constructs were introduced into Arabidopsis thaliana plants via Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Prominent GUS activity was detected in developing seeds of the T3 generation when 245 bp or longer sequences of the upstream region were fused to the GUS gene. We found a clear association of decreased GUS activity with a stepwise deletion of a region containing the RY sequence from the original construct. These results are consistent with the notion that multiple sequence elements including the RY sequences are involved in the seed-specific transcriptional activation of the β-conglycinin α subunit gene in soybean
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