1,420 research outputs found

    The Environmental and Economic Effects of European Emissions Trading

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    In 2005, the EU introduced an emissions trading system in order to pursue its Kyoto obligations. This instrument gives emitters the flexibility to undertake reduction measures in the most cost-efficient way and mobilizes market forces for the protection of the earth's climate. In this paper, we analyse the effects of emissions trading in Europe, with some special reference to the case of Germany. We look at the value of the flexibility gained by trading compared to fixed quotas. The analysis will be undertaken with a modified version of the GTAP-E model using the latest GTAP version 6 data base. It is based on the national allocation plans as submitted to and approved by the EU. We find that, if the NAP is combined with a regional emissions trading scheme, then Germany, Great Britain, and Czech Republic are the main sellers of emissions permits, while Belgium, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden are the main buyers. The welfare gains from regional emissions trading - for the trading sectors only - are largest for Belgium, Denmark, and Great Britain; smaller for Finland, Sweden, and smallest for Germany and other regions. When we take into account the economy-wide and terms of trade effects of emissions trading, however, the (negative) terms of trade effects can offset the (positive) allocative efficiency gains for the cases of the Netherland and Italy, while all other regions ended up with positive net welfare gains. All regions, however, experienced positive increases in real GDP as a result of regional emissions trading.

    An HMM-based Comparative Genomic Framework for Detecting Introgression in Eukaryotes

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    One outcome of interspecific hybridization and subsequent effects of evolutionary forces is introgression, which is the integration of genetic material from one species into the genome of an individual in another species. The evolution of several groups of eukaryotic species has involved hybridization, and cases of adaptation through introgression have been already established. In this work, we report on a new comparative genomic framework for detecting introgression in genomes, called PhyloNet-HMM, which combines phylogenetic networks, that capture reticulate evolutionary relationships among genomes, with hidden Markov models (HMMs), that capture dependencies within genomes. A novel aspect of our work is that it also accounts for incomplete lineage sorting and dependence across loci. Application of our model to variation data from chromosome 7 in the mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) genome detects a recently reported adaptive introgression event involving the rodent poison resistance gene Vkorc1, in addition to other newly detected introgression regions. Based on our analysis, it is estimated that about 12% of all sites withinchromosome 7 are of introgressive origin (these cover about 18 Mbp of chromosome 7, and over 300 genes). Further, our model detects no introgression in two negative control data sets. Our work provides a powerful framework for systematic analysis of introgression while simultaneously accounting for dependence across sites, point mutations, recombination, and ancestral polymorphism

    Transfer Success on the Linda Problem: A Re-Examination Using Dual Process Theory, Learning Material Characteristics, and Individual Differences

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    The Linda problem is an intensely studied task in the literature for judgments where participants judge the probability of various options and frequently make biased judgements known as conjunction errors. Here, I conceptually replicated and extended the finding by Agnoli and Krantz (1989) that when participants are explicitly trained with Venn diagrams to inhibit their heuristics, successful transfer of learning is observed. I tested whether transfer success was maintained: (1) when the purpose of the training was obscured; (2) after controlling for individual differences; and (3) when learning materials did not include visual images. I successfully replicated their finding, identifying transfer success when the purpose of the training was masked and after controlling for individual differences. Furthermore, the effects of individual differences on transfer success depends on both the kind of learning material used and whether the purpose was masked. Hence, these findings support claims that education can inhibit biases