303 research outputs found

    Testing the role of SNe Ia for galactic chemical evolution of p-nuclei with two-dimensional models and with s-process seeds at different metallicities

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    Date of Acceptance: 07/11/2014The bulk of p isotopes is created in the "gamma processes" mainly by sequences of photodisintegrations and beta decays in explosive conditions in Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) or in core collapse supernovae (ccSN). The contribution of different stellar sources to the observed distribution of p-nuclei in the solar system is still under debate. We explore single degenerate Type Ia supernovae in the framework of two-dimensional SNIa delayed-detonation explosion models. Travaglio et al. discussed the sensitivity of p-nuclei production to different SNIa models, i.e., delayed detonations of different strength, deflagrations, and the dependence on selected s-process seed distributions. Here we present a detailed study of p-process nucleosynthesis occurring in SNIa with s-process seeds at different metallicities. Based on the delayed-detonation model DDT-a of TRV11, we analyze the dependence of p-nucleosynthesis on the s-seed distribution obtained from different strengths of the 13C pocket. We also demonstrate that 208Pb seed alone changes the p-nuclei production considerably. The heavy-s seeds (140 ‚ȧA < 208) contribute with about 30%-40% to the total light-p nuclei production up to 132Ba (with the exception of 94Mo and 130Ba, to which the heavy-s seeds contribute with about 15% only). Using a Galactic chemical evolution code from Travaglio et al., we study the contribution of SNIa to the solar stable p-nuclei. We find that explosions of Chandrasekhar-mass single degenerate systems produce a large amount of p-nuclei in our Galaxy, both in the range of light (A ‚ȧ 120) and heavy p-nuclei, at almost flat average production factors (within a factor of about three). We discussed in details p-isotopes such as 94Mo with a behavior diverging from the average, which we attribute to uncertainties in the nuclear data or in SNIa modeling. Li et al. find that about 70% of all SNeIa are normal events. If these are explained in the framework of explosions of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs resulting from the single-degenerate progenitor channel, we find that they are responsible for at least 50% of the p-nuclei abundances in the solar system.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    Radiogenic p-isotopes from type Ia supernova, nuclear physics uncertainties, and galactic chemical evolution compared with values in primitive meteorites

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    The nucleosynthesis of proton-rich isotopes is calculated for multi-dimensional Chandrasekhar-mass models of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with different metallicities. The predicted abundances of the short-lived radioactive isotopes 92Nb, 97, 98Tc, and 146Sm are given in this framework. The abundance seeds are obtained by calculating s-process nucleosynthesis in the material accreted onto a carbon-oxygen white dwarf from a binary companion. A fine grid of s-seeds at different metallicities and 13C-pocket efficiencies is considered. A galactic chemical evolution model is used to predict the contribution of SN Ia to the solar system p-nuclei composition measured in meteorites. Nuclear physics uncertainties are critical to determine the role of SNe Ia in the production of 92Nb and 146Sm. We find that, if standard Chandrasekhar-mass SNe Ia are at least 50% of all SN Ia, they are strong candidates for reproducing the radiogenic p-process signature observed in meteorites.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    Impact of Nuclear Reaction Uncertainties on AGB Nucleosynthesis Models

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    Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with low initial mass (1 - 3 Msun) are responsible for the production of neutron-capture elements through the main s-process (main slow neutron capture process). The major neutron source is 13C(alpha, n)16O, which burns radiatively during the interpulse periods at about 8 keV and produces a rather low neutron density (10^7 n/cm^3). The second neutron source 22Ne(alpha, n)25Mg, partially activated during the convective thermal pulses when the energy reaches about 23 keV, gives rise to a small neutron exposure but a peaked neutron density (Nn(peak) > 10^11 n/cm^3). At metallicities close to solar, it does not substantially change the final s-process abundances, but mainly affects the isotopic ratios near s-path branchings sensitive to the neutron density. We examine the effect of the present uncertainties of the two neutron sources operating in AGB stars, as well as the competition with the 22Ne(alpha, gamma)26Mg reaction. The analysis is carried out on AGB the main-s process component (reproduced by an average between M(AGB; ini) = 1.5 and 3 Msun at half solar metallicity, see Arlandini et al. 1999), using a set of updated nucleosynthesis models. Major effects are seen close to the branching points. In particular, 13C(alpha, n)16O mainly affects 86Kr and 87Rb owing to the branching at 85Kr, while small variations are shown for heavy isotopes by decreasing or increasing our adopted rate by a factor of 2 - 3. By changing our 22Ne(alpha, n)25Mg rate within a factor of 2, a plausible reproduction of solar s-only isotopes is still obtained. We provide a general overview of the major consequences of these variations on the s-path. A complete description of each branching will be presented in Bisterzo et al., in preparation.Comment: Proceedings of Science 108, XII International Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos 2012 (Cairns, Australia); 6 pages, 2 figure

    Production of 92Nb, 92Mo, and 146Sm in the gamma-process in SNIa

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    The knowledge of the production of extinct radioactivities like 92Nb and 146Sm by photodisintegration processes in ccSN and SNIa models is essential for interpreting abundances in meteoritic material and for Galactic Chemical Evolution (GCE). The 92Mo/92Nb and 146Sm/144Sm ratios provide constraints for GCE and production sites. We present results for SNIa with emphasis on nuclear uncertainties.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, Proceedings of the 13th Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos (NIC XIII), July 2014, Debrecen, Hungar

    Nucleosynthesis and mixing on the Asymptotic Giant Branch. III. Predicted and observed s-process abundances

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    We present the results of s-process nucleosynthesis calculations for AGB stars of different metallicities and initial masses. The computations were based on previously published stellar evolutionary models that account for the III dredge up phenomenon occurring late on the AGB. Neutron production is driven by the 13C(alpha,n)16O reaction during the interpulse periods in a tiny layer in radiative equilibrium at the top of the He- and C-rich shell. The s-enriched material is subsequently mixed with the envelope by the III dredge up, and the envelope composition is computed after each thermal pulse. We follow the changes in the photospheric abundance of the Ba-peak elements (heavy s, or `hs') and that of the Zr-peak ones (light s, or `ls'), whose logarithmic ratio [hs/ls] has often been adopted as an indicator of the s-process efficiency. The theoretical predictions are compared with published abundances of s elements for Galactic AGB giants of classes MS, S, SC, post-AGB supergiants, and for various classes of binary stars. The observations in general confirm the complex dependence of n captures on metallicity. They suggest that a moderate spread exists in the abundance of 13C that is burnt in different stars. Although additional observations are needed, a good understanding has been achieved of s-process operation in AGB. The detailed abundance distribution including the light elements (CNO) of a few s-enriched stars at different metallicity are examined.Comment: Accepted for ApJ, 59 pages, 19 figures, 5 table

    Multi-dimensional nucleosynthesis calculations of Type II SNe

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    We investigate explosive nuclear burning in core collapse supernovae by coupling a tracer particle method to one and two-dimensional Eulerian hydrodynamic calculations. Adopting the most recent experimental and theoretical nuclear data, we compute the nucleosynthetic yields for 15 Msun stars with solar metallicity, by post-processing the temperature and density history of advected tracer particles. We compare our results to 1D calculations published in the literature.Comment: 10 pages, to appear in Carnegie Observatories Astrophysics Series, Vol. 4: Origin and Evolution of the Elements, ed. A. McWilliam and M. Rauch (Pasadena: Carnegie Observatories

    s/alpha/Fe Abundance Ratios in Halo Field Stars: Is there a Globular Cluster Connection?

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    We try to understand the s- and r-process elements vs Ti/Fe plots derived by Jehin et al. (1999) for mildly metal-poor stars within the framework of the analytical semi-empirical models for these elements by Pagel & Tautvaisiene (1995, 1997). Jehin et al. distinguished two Pop II subgroups: IIa with alpha/Fe and s-elements/Fe increasing together, which they attribute to pure SNII activity, and IIb with constant alpha/Fe and a range in s/Fe which they attribute to a prolonged accretion phase in parent globular clusters. However, their sample consists mainly of thick-disk stars with only 4 clear halo members, of which two are `anomalous' in the sense defined by Nissen & Schuster (1997). Only the remaining two halo stars (and one in Nissen & Schuster's sample) depart significantly from Y/Ti (or s/alpha) ratios predicted by our model.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures To appear in: Roma-Trieste Workshop 1999: `The Chemical Evolution of the Milky Way: Stars vs Clusters', Vulcano Sept. 1999. F. Giovanelli & F. Matteucci (eds), Kluwer, Dordrech

    Abundances of Cu and Zn in metal-poor stars: clues for Galaxy evolution

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    We present new observations of copper and zinc abundances in 90 metal-poor stars, belonging to the metallicity range -3< [Fe/H] < -0.5. The present study is based on high resolution spectroscopic measurements collected at the Haute Provence Observatoire (R= 42000, S/N > 100). The trend of Cu and Zn abundances as a function of the metallicity [Fe/H] is discussed and compared to that of other heavy elements beyond iron. We also estimate spatial velocities and galactic orbital parameters for our target stars in order to disentangle the population of disk stars from that of halo stars using kinematic criteria. In the absence of a firm a priori knowledge of the nucleosynthesis mechanisms controlling Cu and Zn production, and of the relative stellar sites, we derive constraints on these last from the trend of the observed ratios [Cu/Fe] and [Zn/Fe] throughout the history of the Galaxy, as well as from a few well established properties of basic nucleosynthesis processes in stars. We thus confirm that the production of Cu and Zn requires a number of different sources (neutron captures in massive stars, s-processing in low and intermediate mass stars, explosive nucleosynthesis in various supernova types). We also attempt a ranking of the relative roles played by different production mechanisms, and verify these hints through a simple estimate of the galactic enrichment in Cu and Zn. In agreement with suggestions presented earlier, we find evidence that Type Ia Supernovae must play a relevant role, especially for the production of Cu.Comment: Accepted for A&A, 27 pages, 14 figure
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