21 research outputs found

    ショウガッコウ コクゴカ キョウカショ ニオケル ツマズキ コトバ ノ ブンセキ

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    This study analyzes “difficult” words that appear in elementary−level Japanese language textbooks. The term “difficult words” here refers to words and expressions that are expected to be difficult to understand for children. This study first categorizes textbook terms based on two criteria : (1) how close or how removed is the term from the children’s everyday life and (2) whether or not the term is specific to the subject. It then analyzes how difficult the terms in each category are to understand. Finally, On the basis of the experiences of elementary school teachers, this study analyzes characteristics of 1,795 difficult words taken from elementary−level textbooks

    シカ ノ ゴジュン ゲンショウ オ メグッテ

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    This paper describes the word order restrictions of shika and focus particles (FPs) in negative sentences. These restrictions include restrictions in the distribution of FPs like sae/koso, on the one hand, and in the semantic interpretation of the relative scope of FPs like made/dake and negation, on the other. Both of these phenomena can be explained by the general syntactic property of agreement in Japanese FPs. This paper also points out the same kinds of phenomena are observable in negative polarity items (NPIs) and numeral quantifiers. This suggests that there is a more generalized restriction among quantifiers in Japanese

    ソノモノ ノ ヨウホウ ト イミ

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    This paper describes the meaning and use of the expression sono-mono in Japanese. Sono-mono has two uses like the so-called emphatic-reflexive itself in English. One is "noun use" which has reflexive interpretation, the other is "predicative use" which has a metaphorical one. This paper shows that the factor determining these interpretations of sono-mono is the referential property of the preceding phrase. Finally, this paper concludes that the basic meaning of sono-mono can be defined as the marker of the upper bound of the paradigmatic scale

    モクテキ オ アラワス ナイ タメニ ノ ジッタイ

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    This paper describes the use of the expression nai?tameni in Japanese, by using the “Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese(BCCWJ)”(the monitor version in 2008). The tameni clause in Japanese has a “purpose” interpretation, which is determined by the controllability of the predicate that precedes tameni. In this sense, nai?tameni is a non?canonical expression, because the negative nai is a sort of stative predicate, and not a controllable one. This paper shows the variations of the nai?tameni construction in the BCCWJ, and analyzes this phenomenon from the following four viewpoints : (1) the frequency in the BCCWJ ; (2) the occurrence of the following particles ; (3) the properties of the preceding verbs of nai?tameni ; and (4) the mismatch of the agents of the main and subordinate clauses

    テノメイシク ノ イミ ト ケイシキ

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    本研究は、「階段に座っての食事」「全力を尽くしての結果」のように、テ節を内部に含む名詞句(「テノ名詞句」と呼ぶ)について、(1)主要部の被修飾名詞の特性、(2)名詞句内のテ節の意味・用法、(3)テノ名詞句の統一的な意味、 という三つの観点から分析を行なったものである。本研究では、まず、先行研究の記述の整理を行ない、問題となる点を明らかにした上で、形態的な基準に基づいて被修飾名詞を「述語性名詞」と「非述語性名詞」に分類し、それぞれの名詞とテ節との関係が異なることを指摘した(上記(1)(2))。先行研究で中心的に扱われてきた述語性名詞の場合、文(動詞句)に並行的な構造を持っており、テ節と名詞とは連用修飾に相当する意味的関係にある。この構造的特性から、テノ名詞句において、一部の用法のテ節のみが生起可能であることが説明される。一方、非述語性名詞の場合、文に並行的な構造を持っておらず、連用修飾との関係は薄い。むしろ、この非述語性名詞には、「外の関係」の連体修飾に相当する意味的関係を持った名詞の多くが該当するということが指摘できる。以上のように、本研究では、従来は明確な整理がされてこなかったテノ名詞句を二つに区分した上で、さらに、二つのタイプのテノ名詞句でそれぞれ観察される制限から、テノ名詞句全体に共通する意味的特徴を抽出した(上記(3))。この特徴は、「時間的展開の内包」であり、最終的には、テ節が持つ一般的な特徴に還元できるものである。This paper describes noun phrases that include a te-clause (called “te-no noun phrases”) from the following three viewpoints: (1) characteristics of the modified noun, (2) meaning and usage of the te-clause, and (3) meaning of the te-no noun phrases. First, the head nouns in these noun phrases can be classified into “predicative nouns” and “non-predicative nouns,” based on morphological criteria. Predicative noun snot only have a structure parallel to verb phrases but also have structural restrictions on the occurrence of the te-clause with in the noun phrase. On the other hand, non-predicative nouns do not show such a parallelism; they have a relation of modification between the te-clause and the head noun, similar to the non-case relational relative clause in Teramura\u27s (1977) sense. This paper also finds that a schema of temporal development can be extracted from these noun phrases, which can be reduced to a general meaning of te-clauses

    Poskus leksikografskega opisa slovničnih značilnosti japonskih tujk: študija primera

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    The present papers offers a case study of a Japanese loanword verb, with the aim of contributing to corpus-based research on Japanese loanwords and of providing a foundation for the compilation of a dictionary of grammatical patterns of loanwords for learners of Japanese as a foreign language. The case study presents an analysis of actual usage of loanword suru-verbs in the large-scale Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese, which is followed by a detailed analysis of all examples of the polysemous verb katto-suru. It is thereby shown how corpora can help in describing loanwords by matching a word’s meaning with its patterns of usage, and how such a description can be useful to learners of Japanese as a foreign language.Pričujoči članek predstavlja študijo primera japonskega glagola tujega izvora, z namenom prispevati h korpusno-osnovanim raziskavam japonskih tujk in obenem predlagati osnovne smernice za sestavo slovarja slovničnih vzorcev japonskih tujk za učence japonščine kot tujega jezika. Predstavljena je analiza rabe samostalniških glagolov na -suru v velikem uravnoteženem korpusu sodobne pisne japonščine (BCCWJ), čemur sledi podrobna analiza vseh primerov večpomenskega glagola katto-suru. S tem je prikazano, kako lahko uporaba korpusa pripomore k opisu tujk z vzporejanjem podpomenov in vzorcev rabe posameznih besed ter kako lahko tak opis koristi učencem japonščine kot tujega jezika

    「連体詞リスト」について

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    レンタイシ リスト ニツイテ

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    「しか」の語順現象をめぐって

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