54 research outputs found

    Effectiveness of resilient wheels in reducing noise and vibrations

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    This study focuses on the effectiveness of resilient wheels in reducing railway noise and vibrations, and compares the effectiveness of three types of wheels. The finite elements method has been used to characterise the vibratory behaviour of these wheels. The model has been excited with a realistic spectrum of vertical track irregularities, and a spectral analysis has been carried out. Results have been post-processed in order to estimate the sound power emitted. These calculations have been used to assess the effectiveness of the resilient wheel designs in reducing noise emitted to the environment and in propagating structural vibrations

    Limits to mode-localized sensing using micro- and nanomechanical resonator arrays

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    In recent years, the concept of utilizing the phenomenon of vibration mode-localization as a paradigm of mechanical sensing has made profound impact in the design and development of highly sensitive micro- and nanomechanical sensors. Unprecedented enhancements in sensor response exceeding three orders of magnitude relative to the more conventional resonant frequency shift based technique have been both theoretically and experimentally demonstrated using this new sensing approach. However, the ultimate limits of detection and in consequence, the minimum attainable resolution in such mode-localized sensors still remain uncertain. This paper aims to fill this gap by investigating the limits to sensitivity enhancement imposed on such sensors, by some of the fundamental physical noise processes, the bandwidth of operation and the noise from the electronic interfacial circuits. Our analyses indicate that such mode-localized sensors offer tremendous potential for highly sensitive mass and stiffness detection with ultimate resolutions that may be orders of magnitude better than most conventional micro- and nanomechanical resonant sensors

    Hybrid Simulation Theory for Continuous Beams

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    Hybrid simulation is an experimental technique involving the integration of a physical system and a computational system with the use of actuators and sensors. This method has a long history in the experimental community and has been used for nearly 40 years. However, there is a distinct lack of theoretical research on the performance of this method. Hybrid simulation experiments are performed with the implicit assumption of an accurate result as long as sensor and actuator errors are minimized. However, no theoretical results confirm this intuition nor is it understood how minimal the error should be and what the essential controlling factors are. To address this deficit in knowledge, this study considers the problem as one of tracking the trajectory of a dynamical system in a suitably defined configuration space. To make progress, the study strictly considers a theoretical hybrid system. This allows for precise definitions of errors during hybrid simulation. As a model system, the study looks at an elastic beam as well as a viscoelastic beam. In both cases, systems with a continuous distribution of mass are considered as occur in real physical systems. Errors in the system are then tracked during harmonic excitation using space-time L2-norms defined over the system's configuration space. A parametric study is then presented of how magnitude and phase errors in the control system relate to the performance of hybrid simulation. It is seen that there are sharp sensitivities to control system errors. Further, the existence of unacceptably high errors whenever the excitations exceed the system's fundamental frequency is shown to be present in hybrid simulation

    Failure Analysis of Flow-induced Vibration Problem of in-serviced Duplex Stainless Steel Piping System in Oil and Gas Industry

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    Failure of the duplex stainless steel piping system in oil and gas industry can have disastrous effects. In this study, a novel method of failure analysis of flow-induced vibration problem of in-serviced duplex stainless steel piping system is proposed. The proposed non-destructive technique is able to determine a suitable operating condition for continuous operation without failure. The technique relies on the combined operation of operational modal analysis, operating deflection shape analysis and linear elastic finite element analysis. The effect of different operating conditions for two distinct valve opening cases (i.e. fully opened and partially opened) on the dynamic stress is examined, and they are utilised for forecasting purpose in failure analysis. The result shows that maximum operating conditions are 360 and 400 mmscfd for fully opened and partially opened flow control valves, respectively. Beyond this limit, the piping system most likely will fail

    Effects of fluoxetine on functional outcomes after acute stroke (FOCUS): a pragmatic, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial

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    Background Results of small trials indicate that fluoxetine might improve functional outcomes after stroke. The FOCUS trial aimed to provide a precise estimate of these effects. Methods FOCUS was a pragmatic, multicentre, parallel group, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial done at 103 hospitals in the UK. Patients were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, had a clinical stroke diagnosis, were enrolled and randomly assigned between 2 days and 15 days after onset, and had focal neurological deficits. Patients were randomly allocated fluoxetine 20 mg or matching placebo orally once daily for 6 months via a web-based system by use of a minimisation algorithm. The primary outcome was functional status, measured with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), at 6 months. Patients, carers, health-care staff, and the trial team were masked to treatment allocation. Functional status was assessed at 6 months and 12 months after randomisation. Patients were analysed according to their treatment allocation. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN83290762. Findings Between Sept 10, 2012, and March 31, 2017, 3127 patients were recruited. 1564 patients were allocated fluoxetine and 1563 allocated placebo. mRS data at 6 months were available for 1553 (99·3%) patients in each treatment group. The distribution across mRS categories at 6 months was similar in the fluoxetine and placebo groups (common odds ratio adjusted for minimisation variables 0·951 [95% CI 0·839–1·079]; p=0·439). Patients allocated fluoxetine were less likely than those allocated placebo to develop new depression by 6 months (210 [13·43%] patients vs 269 [17·21%]; difference 3·78% [95% CI 1·26–6·30]; p=0·0033), but they had more bone fractures (45 [2·88%] vs 23 [1·47%]; difference 1·41% [95% CI 0·38–2·43]; p=0·0070). There were no significant differences in any other event at 6 or 12 months. Interpretation Fluoxetine 20 mg given daily for 6 months after acute stroke does not seem to improve functional outcomes. Although the treatment reduced the occurrence of depression, it increased the frequency of bone fractures. These results do not support the routine use of fluoxetine either for the prevention of post-stroke depression or to promote recovery of function. Funding UK Stroke Association and NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme

    Model analysis laboratory

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    Issued as Final report, Project no. E-25-603-

    Nonlinear rotocraft analysis-experimental and analytical

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    Issued as Progress reports [nos. 1-4], Report, and Final report, Project no. E-25-63