316 research outputs found

    Head and neck cancer: metronomic chemotherapy

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    In the era of personalized medicine, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a critical oncologic topic. Conventional chemotherapy regimens consist of drugs administration in cycles near or at the maximum tolerated dose (MDT), followed by a long drug-free period to permit the patient to recover from acute toxicities. Despite this strategy is successful in controlling the cancer process at the beginning, a significant number of HNSCC patients tend to recurred or progress, especially those patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease. The repertoire of drugs directed against tumor cells has greatly increased and metronomic chemotherapy (MC) could be an effective treatment option.It is the purpose of this article to review the concept of MC and describe its potential use in HNSCC. We provide an update of ongoing progress and current challenges related to this issue

    Radiation therapy and serum salivary amylase in head and neck cancer

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    Radiation therapy (RT) is a valid treatment option for head and neck cancer (HNC). The risk of RT-induced toxicities is significant, especially due to extended treatment fields. The raise in amylase activity is strictly dependent on the volume of salivary glands included in the irradiated target volume and it is firmly related to the dose. The aim of this review is to report the effects on salivary amylase activity after radiation exposure of salivary glands, in patients with HNC

    The role of radiation therapy in bone metastases management

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    Bone metastases represent an important complication of malignant tumours. Despite improvement in surgical techniques and advances in systemic therapies, management of patients with bone metastatic disease remains a powerful cornerstone for the radiation oncologist. The primary goal of radiation therapy is to provide pain relief, preserving patient's quality of life

    Defective DNA repair mechanisms in prostate cancer: impact of olaparib

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    The field of prostate oncology has continued to change dramatically. It has truly become a field that is intensely linked to molecular genetic alterations, especially DNA-repair defects. Germline breast cancer 1 gene (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 gene (BRCA2) mutations are implicated in the highest risk of prostate cancer (PC) predisposition and aggressiveness. Poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase (PARP) proteins play a key role in DNA repair mechanisms and represent a valid target for new therapies. Olaparib is an oral PARP inhibitor that blocks DNA repair pathway and coupled with BRCA mutated-disease results in tumor cell death. In phase II clinical trials, including patients with advanced castration-resistant PC, olaparib seems to be efficacious and well tolerated. Waiting for randomized phase III trials, olaparib should be considered as a promising treatment option for PC

    Adjuvant radiation therapy in stage I seminoma: 20 years of oncologic results

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    Aim: To report long term oncologic outcomes after adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for stage I seminoma. Method: We reviewed the complete data set for all patients treated at our institute between 1988 and 2005 for stage I seminoma with adjuvant RT after radical orchiectomy. Results: A total of 85 patients were included. The median follow-3up was 15 years. The 20-3year overall survival (OS) and relapse free survival (RFS) were 92% and 96.3%, respectively. No severe acute and late complications were recorded. Overall 5.9% of patients had a second unrelated malignancy. Conclusion: Adjuvant RT is an efficacious and safe treatment in stage I seminom

    The role of different adjuvant therapies in locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma

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    Complete surgical resection remains the only curative treatment option in locally advanced gastric cancer (GC). Several studies were conducted to prevent local recurrence and to increase the chance of cure. The aim of this study was to summarize our experience in locally advanced GC patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and to evaluate overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), toxicity rate and compliance to treatment

    Skin toxicity after radiotherapy. About a case

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    A 60-year-old woman was admitted to the Department complaining of a slow growing mass in the right knee. Physical examination demonstrated a mass on the postero-lateral aspect of the right knee, which was not tender or mobile, however was rubbery and hard in consistency. Full flexion and extension was observed without any restriction of joint movement

    Unusual presentation of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung

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    On September 2013, a 62-year-old man with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung complained tenderness and pain of the first terminal phalange of his right hand. The biopsy confirmed metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung to the finger. A single 8-Gy fraction of palliative radiotherapy was delivered to the patient's right hand. The patient received magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery treatment to the phalange because he showed few improvement of clinical symptoms and persistence of moderate pain after radiotherapy. After magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery, the clinical symptoms improved significantly. No serious adverse effects were reported and the patient compliance was very high. Our patient showed improvement of clinical symptoms after combined treatment. The patient remains in good health conditions

    Clinical benefit of adding oxaliplatin to standard neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer: a meta-analysis : Oxaliplatin in neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer

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    Abstract. Background: To evaluate the treatment tolerance and clinical outcomes in patients aged 70 years and older with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer treated by definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 15 consecutive elderly patients, with histologically-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, staged T3-4 with or without involved lymph nodes at diagnosis, who received definitive sequential IMRT (70 Gy; 2 Gy/fraction). Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27) score was calculated and its influence on treatment tolerance and clinical outcomes was analyzed. Results: A total of 15 patients were included with a median age of 77 years (range=70-88 years). At baseline, 8 patients (53.3%) had an ACE-27 score of 1, and the remainder (n=7, 46.7%) had a comorbidity index of 0. All patients completed programmed IMRT treatment, without any reduction of total dose. Oral pain and mucositis were the most common acute side-effects, classified as grade 3 in 6 patients (40%) only. Xerostomia was reported in 13 patients (86.7%), without severe manifestation. There was no hematological toxicity. ACE-27 score was not related to higher severe acute toxicity. No patients experienced grade 3 or more late toxicity. Five-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 63.6% (95% confidence interval=32.7-83.3%) and 55% (95% confidence interval=24.4-77.6%), respectively. Comorbidity score did not influence survival outcomes, both overall survival (p=0.46) and disease-free survival (p=0.55). Conclusion: Treatment tolerance, as well as survival outcomes were good in elderly oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with definitive sequential IMRT. Due to age and comorbidity, no dose or volume reduction for IMRT should be considered in this setting of patients. A prospective randomized trial with a large sample size should be conducted to confirm our result

    Modelling the spread of Covid19 in Italy using a revised version of the SIR model

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    In this paper, we present a model to predict the spread of the Covid-19 epidemic and apply it to the specific case of Italy. We started from a simple Susceptible, Infected, Recovered (SIR) model and we added the condition that, after a certain time, the basic reproduction number R0R_0 exponentially decays in time, as empirically suggested by world data. Using this model, we were able to reproduce the real behavior of the epidemic with an average error of 5\%. Moreover, we illustrate possible future scenarios, associated to different intervals of R0R_0. This model has been used since the beginning of March 2020, predicting the Italian peak of the epidemic in April 2020 with about 100.000 detected active cases. The real peak of the epidemic happened on the 20th of April 2020, with 108.000 active cases. This result shows that the model had predictive power for the italian case.Comment: The model presented in this paper has been adopted on Covstat.it. Errata corrige in the abstrac
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