126 research outputs found

    Separase Biosensor Reveals that Cohesin Cleavage Timing Depends on Phosphatase PP2ACdc55 Regulation

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    SummaryIn anaphase, sister chromatids separate abruptly and are then segregated by the mitotic spindle. The protease separase triggers sister separation by cleaving the Scc1/Mcd1 subunit of the cohesin ring that holds sisters together. Polo-kinase phosphorylation of Scc1 promotes its cleavage, but the underlying regulatory circuits are unclear. We developed a separase biosensor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that provides a quantitative indicator of cohesin cleavage in single cells. Separase is abruptly activated and cleaves most cohesin within 1 min, after which anaphase begins. Cohesin near centromeres and telomeres is cleaved at the same rate and time. Protein phosphatase PP2ACdc55 inhibits cohesin cleavage by counteracting polo-kinase phosphorylation of Scc1. In early anaphase, the previously described separase inhibition of PP2ACdc55 promotes cohesin cleavage. Thus, separase acts directly on Scc1 and also indirectly, through inhibition of PP2ACdc55, to stimulate cohesin cleavage, providing a feedforward loop that may contribute to a robust and timely anaphase

    High-resolution imaging of cardiomyocyte behavior reveals two distinct steps in ventricular trabeculation

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    Over the course of development, the vertebrate heart undergoes a series of complex morphogenetic processes that transforms it from a simple myocardial epithelium to the complex 3D structure required for its function. One of these processes leads to the formation of trabeculae to optimize the internal structure of the ventricle for efficient conduction and contraction. Despite the important role of trabeculae in the development and physiology of the heart, little is known about their mechanism of formation. Using 3D time-lapse imaging of beating zebrafish hearts, we observed that the initiation of cardiac trabeculation can be divided into two processes. Before any myocardial cell bodies have entered the trabecular layer, cardiomyocytes extend protrusions that invade luminally along neighboring cell-cell junctions. These protrusions can interact within the trabecular layer to form new cell-cell contacts. Subsequently, cardiomyocytes constrict their abluminal surface, moving their cell bodies into the trabecular layer while elaborating more protrusions. We also examined the formation of these protrusions in trabeculation-deficient animals, including erbb2 mutants, tnnt2a morphants, which lack cardiac contractions and flow, and myh6 morphants, which lack atrial contraction and exhibit reduced flow. We found that, compared with cardiomyocytes in wild-type hearts, those in erbb2 mutants were less likely to form protrusions, those in tnnt2a morphants formed less stable protrusions, and those in myh6 morphants extended fewer protrusions per cell. Thus, through detailed 4D imaging of beating hearts, we have identified novel cellular behaviors underlying cardiac trabeculation

    Mitochondrial Network Size Scaling in Budding Yeast

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    Mitochondria must grow with the growing cell to ensure proper cellular physiology and inheritance upon division. We measured the physical size of mitochondrial networks in budding yeast and found that mitochondrial network size increased with increasing cell size and that this scaling relation occurred primarily in the bud. The mitochondria-to-cell size ratio continually decreased in aging mothers over successive generations. However, regardless of the mother's age or mitochondrial content, all buds attained the same average ratio. Thus, yeast populations achieve a stable scaling relation between mitochondrial content and cell size despite asymmetry in inheritance.Sandler Postdoctoral FellowshipSandler Postdoctoral FellowshipHerbert Boyer Junior Faculty Endowed Chair AwardHerbert Boyer Junior Faculty Endowed Chair AwardNIHNIH [R01GM097017, R01GM070808, R01GM026259, P50Gm081879, 5RO1GM097213-02]NIH National Research Service Award fellowshipNIH National Research Service Award fellowshipFundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao PauloFundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo [05/00587-5, 07/50882-9]Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico [301303/06-1]Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e TecnologicoPackard FellowshipPackard FellowshipChina Scholarship Council (CSC) scholarshipChina Scholarship Council (CSC) scholarshipBoyer Postdoctoral FellowshipBoyer Postdoctoral Fellowshi

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.

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    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P < 5 × 10(-8)). In total, 20 of the 49 waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI loci show significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which display a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms
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