555 research outputs found

    The day-to-day reliability of resting metabolic rate

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    This purpose of this study was to determine the day-to-day reliability of resting metabolic rate. 18 college students, (mean age 22 +/- 3.6 yrs, height 65.78 +/- 22.0 in., body mass 68.05 +/- 10.34 kg, percent body fat 23 +/- 6.5%) gave informed consent to participate in the study. RMR was measured on four separate days over a period of 14 days. Height, weight, and resting heart rate were also recorded on each testing day. Body composition was assessed on the first day. Energy intake, energy expenditure, and caffeine intake were controlled between days. Each test was done between 7 and 9 AM each morning, and RMR was measured by open circuit spirometry over a 35-minute period. Reliability was assessed using an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient. The reliability across days was R = 0.97. The overall mean VO2 was 3.35 +/- .77 ml/kg/min. The mean VO2 was 3.34 +/- .35 ml/kg/min on day one, 3.29 +/- .29 ml kg-1&dotbelow; min-1 on day two, 3.36 +/- .37 ml kg-1&dotbelow; min-1 on day three, and 3.37 +/- .50 ml kg-1&dotbelow; min -1 on day four. This study demonstrates that under controlled conditions, resting metabolic rate is a very stable measurement. Therefore, under these conditions, a single RMR measurement can be considered an estimate of the individual\u27s true RMR, and confidence can be placed in that measurement

    Aqueous Processes and Microbial Habitability of Gale Crater Sediments from the Blunts Point to the Glenn Torridon Clay Unit

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    A driving factor for sending the Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity rover to Gale Crater was the orbital detection of clay minerals in the Glen Torridon (GT) clay unit. Clay mineral detections in GT suggested a past aqueous environment that was habitable, and could contain organic evidence of past microbiology. The mission of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument onboard Curiosity was to detect organic evidence of past microbiology and to detect volatile bearing mineralogy that can inform on whether past geochemical conditions would have supported microbiological activity. The objective of this work was to 1) evaluate the depositional/alteration conditions of Blunts Point (BP) to GT sediments 2) search for evidence of organics, and 3) evaluate microbial habitability in the BP, Vera Rubin Ridge (VRR), and GT sedimentary rock

    Comparison of Marker-based Pairwise Relatedness Estimators on a Pedigreed Plant Population

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    Several estimators have been proposed that use molecular marker data to infer the degree of relatedness for pairs of individuals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of seven estimators when applied to marker data of a set of 33 key individuals from a large complex apple pedigree. The evaluation considered different scenarios of allele frequencies and different numbers of marker loci. The method of moments estimators were Similarity, Queller-Goodknight, Lynch-Ritland and Wang. The maximum likelihood estimators were Thompson, Anderson-Weir and Jacquard. The pedigree-based coancestry coefficients were taken as the point of reference in calculating correlations and root mean square error (RMSE). The marker data comprised 86 multi-allelic SSR markers on 17 linkage groups, covering 11 Morgans. Additionally, we simulated 10 datasets conditional on the real pedigree to support the results on the real dataset. None of the estimators outperformed the others. Knowledge of allele frequencies appeared to be the most influential, i.e., the highest correlations and lowest RMSE were found when frequencies from the founder population were available. When equal allele frequencies were used, all estimators resulted in very similar, but on average lower, correlations. The use of allele frequencies estimated from the set of 33 individuals gave, on average, the poorest results. The maximum likelihood estimators and the Lynch-Ritland estimator were the most sensitive to allele frequencies. The results from the simulation study fully supported the trends in results of the real dataset. This study indicated that high correlations (up to 0.90) and small RMSE (below 0.03), may be obtained when population allelic frequencies are available. In this scenario, the performances of the various estimators were similar, but seemed to favor the maximum likelihood estimators. In the absence of reliable allele frequencies the method of moments estimators were shown to be more robust. The number of marker loci influenced the average performance of the estimators; however, the ranking was not affected. Correlations up to 0.80 were obtained when two markers per chromosome and appropriate allele frequencies were available. Adding more markers to the current dataset may lead to marginal improvements

    Care team and practice-level implementation strategies to optimize pediatric collaborative care: Study protocol for a cluster-randomized hybrid type III trial

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    BACKGROUND: Implementation facilitation is an effective strategy to support the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs), but our understanding of multilevel strategies and the mechanisms of change within the black box of implementation facilitation is limited. This implementation trial seeks to disentangle and evaluate the effects of facilitation strategies that separately target the care team and leadership levels on implementation of a collaborative care model in pediatric primary care. Strategies targeting the provider care team (TEAM) should engage team-level mechanisms, and strategies targeting leaders (LEAD) should engage organizational mechanisms. METHODS: We will conduct a hybrid type 3 effectiveness-implementation trial in a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate the main and interactive effects of TEAM and LEAD and test for mediation and moderation of effects. Twenty-four pediatric primary care practices will receive standard REP training to implement Doctor-Office Collaborative Care (DOCC) and then be randomized to (1) Standard REP only, (2) TEAM, (3) LEAD, or (4) TEAM + LEAD. Implementation outcomes are DOCC service delivery and change in practice-level care management competencies. Clinical outcomes are child symptom severity and quality of life. DISCUSSION: This statewide trial is one of the first to test the unique and synergistic effects of implementation strategies targeting care teams and practice leadership. It will advance our knowledge of effective care team and practice-level implementation strategies and mechanisms of change. Findings will support efforts to improve common child behavioral health conditions by optimizing scale-up and sustainment of CCMs in a pediatric patient-centered medical home. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04946253 . Registered June 30, 2021

    Pan-Cancer Analysis of lncRNA Regulation Supports Their Targeting of Cancer Genes in Each Tumor Context

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    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are commonly dys-regulated in tumors, but only a handful are known toplay pathophysiological roles in cancer. We inferredlncRNAs that dysregulate cancer pathways, onco-genes, and tumor suppressors (cancer genes) bymodeling their effects on the activity of transcriptionfactors, RNA-binding proteins, and microRNAs in5,185 TCGA tumors and 1,019 ENCODE assays.Our predictions included hundreds of candidateonco- and tumor-suppressor lncRNAs (cancerlncRNAs) whose somatic alterations account for thedysregulation of dozens of cancer genes and path-ways in each of 14 tumor contexts. To demonstrateproof of concept, we showed that perturbations tar-geting OIP5-AS1 (an inferred tumor suppressor) andTUG1 and WT1-AS (inferred onco-lncRNAs) dysre-gulated cancer genes and altered proliferation ofbreast and gynecologic cancer cells. Our analysis in-dicates that, although most lncRNAs are dysregu-lated in a tumor-specific manner, some, includingOIP5-AS1, TUG1, NEAT1, MEG3, and TSIX, synergis-tically dysregulate cancer pathways in multiple tumorcontexts

    Pan-cancer Alterations of the MYC Oncogene and Its Proximal Network across the Cancer Genome Atlas

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    Although theMYConcogene has been implicated incancer, a systematic assessment of alterations ofMYC, related transcription factors, and co-regulatoryproteins, forming the proximal MYC network (PMN),across human cancers is lacking. Using computa-tional approaches, we define genomic and proteo-mic features associated with MYC and the PMNacross the 33 cancers of The Cancer Genome Atlas.Pan-cancer, 28% of all samples had at least one ofthe MYC paralogs amplified. In contrast, the MYCantagonists MGA and MNT were the most frequentlymutated or deleted members, proposing a roleas tumor suppressors.MYCalterations were mutu-ally exclusive withPIK3CA,PTEN,APC,orBRAFalterations, suggesting that MYC is a distinct onco-genic driver. Expression analysis revealed MYC-associated pathways in tumor subtypes, such asimmune response and growth factor signaling; chro-matin, translation, and DNA replication/repair wereconserved pan-cancer. This analysis reveals insightsinto MYC biology and is a reference for biomarkersand therapeutics for cancers with alterations ofMYC or the PMN

    Ice core chemistry database: an Antarctic compilation of sodium and sulfate records spanning the past 2000 years

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    Changes in sea ice conditions and atmospheric circulation over the Southern Ocean play an important role in modulating Antarctic climate. However, observations of both sea ice and wind conditions are limited in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, both temporally and spatially, prior to the satellite era (1970 onwards). Ice core chemistry data can be used to reconstruct changes over annual, decadal, and millennial timescales. To facilitate sea ice and wind reconstructions, the CLIVASH2k (CLimate Variability in Antarctica and the Southern Hemisphere over the past 2000 years) working group has compiled a database of two species, sodium [Na+] and sulfate [SO2− 4 ], commonly measured ionic species. The database (https://doi.org/10.5285/9E0ED16E-F2AB4372-8DF3-FDE7E388C9A7; Thomas et al., 2022) comprises records from 105 Antarctic ice cores, containing records with a maximum age duration of 2000 years. An initial filter has been applied, based on evaluation against sea ice concentration, geopotential height (500 hPa), and surface wind fields to identify sites suitable for reconstructing past sea ice conditions, wind strength, or atmospheric circulation

    Genomic, Pathway Network, and Immunologic Features Distinguishing Squamous Carcinomas

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    This integrated, multiplatform PanCancer Atlas study co-mapped and identified distinguishing molecular features of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) from five sites associated with smokin
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