129 research outputs found

    Generative Image Modeling Using Spatial LSTMs

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    Modeling the distribution of natural images is challenging, partly because of strong statistical dependencies which can extend over hundreds of pixels. Recurrent neural networks have been successful in capturing long-range dependencies in a number of problems but only recently have found their way into generative image models. We here introduce a recurrent image model based on multi-dimensional long short-term memory units which are particularly suited for image modeling due to their spatial structure. Our model scales to images of arbitrary size and its likelihood is computationally tractable. We find that it outperforms the state of the art in quantitative comparisons on several image datasets and produces promising results when used for texture synthesis and inpainting

    A trust-region method for stochastic variational inference with applications to streaming data

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    Stochastic variational inference allows for fast posterior inference in complex Bayesian models. However, the algorithm is prone to local optima which can make the quality of the posterior approximation sensitive to the choice of hyperparameters and initialization. We address this problem by replacing the natural gradient step of stochastic varitional inference with a trust-region update. We show that this leads to generally better results and reduced sensitivity to hyperparameters. We also describe a new strategy for variational inference on streaming data and show that here our trust-region method is crucial for getting good performance.Comment: in Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Machine Learning, 201

    Fast Face-swap Using Convolutional Neural Networks

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    We consider the problem of face swapping in images, where an input identity is transformed into a target identity while preserving pose, facial expression, and lighting. To perform this mapping, we use convolutional neural networks trained to capture the appearance of the target identity from an unstructured collection of his/her photographs.This approach is enabled by framing the face swapping problem in terms of style transfer, where the goal is to render an image in the style of another one. Building on recent advances in this area, we devise a new loss function that enables the network to produce highly photorealistic results. By combining neural networks with simple pre- and post-processing steps, we aim at making face swap work in real-time with no input from the user

    In All Likelihood, Deep Belief Is Not Enough

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    Statistical models of natural stimuli provide an important tool for researchers in the fields of machine learning and computational neuroscience. A canonical way to quantitatively assess and compare the performance of statistical models is given by the likelihood. One class of statistical models which has recently gained increasing popularity and has been applied to a variety of complex data are deep belief networks. Analyses of these models, however, have been typically limited to qualitative analyses based on samples due to the computationally intractable nature of the model likelihood. Motivated by these circumstances, the present article provides a consistent estimator for the likelihood that is both computationally tractable and simple to apply in practice. Using this estimator, a deep belief network which has been suggested for the modeling of natural image patches is quantitatively investigated and compared to other models of natural image patches. Contrary to earlier claims based on qualitative results, the results presented in this article provide evidence that the model under investigation is not a particularly good model for natural image

    A Generative Model of Natural Texture Surrogates

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    Natural images can be viewed as patchworks of different textures, where the local image statistics is roughly stationary within a small neighborhood but otherwise varies from region to region. In order to model this variability, we first applied the parametric texture algorithm of Portilla and Simoncelli to image patches of 64X64 pixels in a large database of natural images such that each image patch is then described by 655 texture parameters which specify certain statistics, such as variances and covariances of wavelet coefficients or coefficient magnitudes within that patch. To model the statistics of these texture parameters, we then developed suitable nonlinear transformations of the parameters that allowed us to fit their joint statistics with a multivariate Gaussian distribution. We find that the first 200 principal components contain more than 99% of the variance and are sufficient to generate textures that are perceptually extremely close to those generated with all 655 components. We demonstrate the usefulness of the model in several ways: (1) We sample ensembles of texture patches that can be directly compared to samples of patches from the natural image database and can to a high degree reproduce their perceptual appearance. (2) We further developed an image compression algorithm which generates surprisingly accurate images at bit rates as low as 0.14 bits/pixel. Finally, (3) We demonstrate how our approach can be used for an efficient and objective evaluation of samples generated with probabilistic models of natural images.Comment: 34 pages, 9 figure

    A note on the evaluation of generative models

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    Probabilistic generative models can be used for compression, denoising, inpainting, texture synthesis, semi-supervised learning, unsupervised feature learning, and other tasks. Given this wide range of applications, it is not surprising that a lot of heterogeneity exists in the way these models are formulated, trained, and evaluated. As a consequence, direct comparison between models is often difficult. This article reviews mostly known but often underappreciated properties relating to the evaluation and interpretation of generative models with a focus on image models. In particular, we show that three of the currently most commonly used criteria---average log-likelihood, Parzen window estimates, and visual fidelity of samples---are largely independent of each other when the data is high-dimensional. Good performance with respect to one criterion therefore need not imply good performance with respect to the other criteria. Our results show that extrapolation from one criterion to another is not warranted and generative models need to be evaluated directly with respect to the application(s) they were intended for. In addition, we provide examples demonstrating that Parzen window estimates should generally be avoided