685 research outputs found

    Bilateral Random Projections

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    Low-rank structure have been profoundly studied in data mining and machine learning. In this paper, we show a dense matrix XX's low-rank approximation can be rapidly built from its left and right random projections Y1=XA1Y_1=XA_1 and Y2=XTA2Y_2=X^TA_2, or bilateral random projection (BRP). We then show power scheme can further improve the precision. The deterministic, average and deviation bounds of the proposed method and its power scheme modification are proved theoretically. The effectiveness and the efficiency of BRP based low-rank approximation is empirically verified on both artificial and real datasets.Comment: 17 pages, 3 figures, technical repor

    Hamming Compressed Sensing

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    Compressed sensing (CS) and 1-bit CS cannot directly recover quantized signals and require time consuming recovery. In this paper, we introduce \textit{Hamming compressed sensing} (HCS) that directly recovers a k-bit quantized signal of dimensional nn from its 1-bit measurements via invoking nn times of Kullback-Leibler divergence based nearest neighbor search. Compared with CS and 1-bit CS, HCS allows the signal to be dense, takes considerably less (linear) recovery time and requires substantially less measurements (O(log⁑n)\mathcal O(\log n)). Moreover, HCS recovery can accelerate the subsequent 1-bit CS dequantizer. We study a quantized recovery error bound of HCS for general signals and "HCS+dequantizer" recovery error bound for sparse signals. Extensive numerical simulations verify the appealing accuracy, robustness, efficiency and consistency of HCS.Comment: 33 pages, 8 figure

    Asymptotic Generalization Bound of Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis

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    Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA) is an important dimension reduction method in statistical pattern recognition. It has been shown that FLDA is asymptotically Bayes optimal under the homoscedastic Gaussian assumption. However, this classical result has the following two major limitations: 1) it holds only for a fixed dimensionality DD, and thus does not apply when DD and the training sample size NN are proportionally large; 2) it does not provide a quantitative description on how the generalization ability of FLDA is affected by DD and NN. In this paper, we present an asymptotic generalization analysis of FLDA based on random matrix theory, in a setting where both DD and NN increase and D/N⟢γ∈[0,1)D/N\longrightarrow\gamma\in[0,1). The obtained lower bound of the generalization discrimination power overcomes both limitations of the classical result, i.e., it is applicable when DD and NN are proportionally large and provides a quantitative description of the generalization ability of FLDA in terms of the ratio γ=D/N\gamma=D/N and the population discrimination power. Besides, the discrimination power bound also leads to an upper bound on the generalization error of binary-classification with FLDA

    Recent Progress in Image Deblurring

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    This paper comprehensively reviews the recent development of image deblurring, including non-blind/blind, spatially invariant/variant deblurring techniques. Indeed, these techniques share the same objective of inferring a latent sharp image from one or several corresponding blurry images, while the blind deblurring techniques are also required to derive an accurate blur kernel. Considering the critical role of image restoration in modern imaging systems to provide high-quality images under complex environments such as motion, undesirable lighting conditions, and imperfect system components, image deblurring has attracted growing attention in recent years. From the viewpoint of how to handle the ill-posedness which is a crucial issue in deblurring tasks, existing methods can be grouped into five categories: Bayesian inference framework, variational methods, sparse representation-based methods, homography-based modeling, and region-based methods. In spite of achieving a certain level of development, image deblurring, especially the blind case, is limited in its success by complex application conditions which make the blur kernel hard to obtain and be spatially variant. We provide a holistic understanding and deep insight into image deblurring in this review. An analysis of the empirical evidence for representative methods, practical issues, as well as a discussion of promising future directions are also presented.Comment: 53 pages, 17 figure

    Shakeout: A New Approach to Regularized Deep Neural Network Training

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    Recent years have witnessed the success of deep neural networks in dealing with a plenty of practical problems. Dropout has played an essential role in many successful deep neural networks, by inducing regularization in the model training. In this paper, we present a new regularized training approach: Shakeout. Instead of randomly discarding units as Dropout does at the training stage, Shakeout randomly chooses to enhance or reverse each unit's contribution to the next layer. This minor modification of Dropout has the statistical trait: the regularizer induced by Shakeout adaptively combines L0L_0, L1L_1 and L2L_2 regularization terms. Our classification experiments with representative deep architectures on image datasets MNIST, CIFAR-10 and ImageNet show that Shakeout deals with over-fitting effectively and outperforms Dropout. We empirically demonstrate that Shakeout leads to sparser weights under both unsupervised and supervised settings. Shakeout also leads to the grouping effect of the input units in a layer. Considering the weights in reflecting the importance of connections, Shakeout is superior to Dropout, which is valuable for the deep model compression. Moreover, we demonstrate that Shakeout can effectively reduce the instability of the training process of the deep architecture.Comment: Appears at T-PAMI 201
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