27 research outputs found

    Vascular miR‐181b controls tissue factor‐dependent thrombogenicity and inflammation in type 2 diabetes

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    BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronic vascular inflammation leading to pathological expression of the thrombogenic full length (fl) tissue factor (TF) and its isoform alternatively-spliced (as) TF. Blood-borne TF promotes factor (F) Xa generation resulting in a pro-thrombotic state and cardiovascular complications. MicroRNA (miR)s impact gene expression on the post-transcriptional level and contribute to vascular homeostasis. Their distinct role in the control of the diabetes-related procoagulant state remains poorly understood. METHODS: In a cohort of patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (n = 46) plasma levels of miR-181b were correlated with TF pathway activity and markers for vascular inflammation. In vitro, human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC)-1 and human monocytes (THP-1) were transfected with miR-181b or anti-miR-181b and exposed to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α or lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Expression of TF isoforms, vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM) 1 and nuclear factor (NF) ÎșB nuclear translocation was assessed. Moreover, aortas, spleen, plasma, and bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM)s of mice carrying a deletion of the first miR-181b locus were analyzed with respect to TF expression and activity. RESULTS: In patients with type 2 diabetes, plasma miR-181b negatively correlated with the procoagulant state as evidenced by TF protein, TF activity, D-dimer levels as well as markers for vascular inflammation. In HMEC-1, miR-181b abrogated TNFα-induced expression of flTF, asTF, and VCAM1. These results were validated using the anti-miR-181b. Mechanistically, we confirmed a miR-181b-mediated inhibition of importin-α3 (KPNA4) leading to reduced nuclear translocation of the TF transcription factor NFÎșB. In THP-1, miR-181b reduced both TF isoforms and FXa generation in response to LPS due to targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a principal inducer for TF in monocytes. Moreover, in miR-181-/- animals, we found that reduced levels of miR-181b were accompanied by increased TF, VCAM1, and KPNA4 expression in aortic tissue as well as increased TF and PTEN expression in spleen. Finally, BMDMs of miR-181-/- mice showed increased TF expression and FXa generation upon stimulation with LPS. CONCLUSIONS: miR-181b epigenetically controls the procoagulant state in diabetes. Reduced miR-181b levels contribute to increased thrombogenicity and may help to identify individuals at particular risk for thrombosis

    MicroRNA-19a contributes to the epigenetic regulation of tissue factor in diabetes

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    Background: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronic vascular disorder and presents a main risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. In particular, hyperglycaemia and inflammatory cytokines induce vascular circulating tissue factor (TF) that promotes pro-thrombotic conditions in diabetes. It has recently become evident that alterations of the post-transcriptional regulation of TF via specific microRNA(miR)s, such as miR-126, contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. The endothelial miR-19a is involved in vascular homeostasis and atheroprotection. However, its role in diabetes-related thrombogenicity is unknown. Understanding miR-networks regulating procoagulability in diabetes may help to develop new treatment options preventing vascular complications. Methods and results: Plasma of 44 patients with known diabetes was assessed for the expression of miR-19a, TF protein, TF activity, and markers for vascular inflammation. High miR-19a expression was associated with reduced TF protein, TF-mediated procoagulability, and vascular inflammation based on expression of vascular adhesion molecule-1 and leukocyte count. We found plasma expression of miR-19a to strongly correlate with miR-126. miR-19a reduced the TF expression on mRNA and protein level in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) as well as TF activity in human monocytes (THP-1), while anti-miR-19a increased the TF expression. Interestingly, miR-19a induced VCAM expression in HMEC. However, miR-19a and miR-126 co-transfection reduced total endothelial VCAM expression and exhibited additive inhibition of a luciferase reporter construct containing the F3 3â€ČUTR. Conclusions: While both miRs have differential functions on endothelial VCAM expression, miR-19a and miR-126 cooperate to exhibit anti-thrombotic properties via regulating vascular TF expression. Modulating the post-transcriptional control of TF in diabetes may provide a future anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory therapy

    Die regionale Agrarumweltpolitik in Deutschland unter dem Einfluss der Förderangebote der EuropÀischen Union

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    The article addresses the role the European Union plays in the agri-environmental policy and considers the co-financing of agri-environmental programmes in Germany. First, the development of measures taken under this policy is described from the 1980ies until the present Agenda 2000, taking especially into account the effects of financial promotion by the EU. In addition, a view on nature conservation and water protection reveals the sometimes conflicting interactions between agri-environmental measures and other areas and instruments of environmental policy. In a second part, three sections describe identified problems resulting from the influence of the EU: the effects on the choice and design of agri-environmental policy instruments in the Federal States of Germany, the uncertainties and contradictions resulting in the area of property rights, and the controversially rated income effects. The results are brought together and discussed with reference to the current debate on the disentanglement of agri-environmental policy. Finally, conclusions are drawn for the practical design of agri-environmental policy

    Metformin Is Associated with Reduced Tissue Factor Procoagulant Activity in Patients with Poorly Controlled Diabetes

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    Purpose: Metformin is the first-line antidiabetic drug and shown to reduce cardiovascular risk independent from its glucose lowering action. Particularly in poorly controlled diabetes, tissue factor (TF) is expressed in the vasculature and accounts for thromboembolic complications. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of metformin on TF activity and markers of vascular inflammation in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Methods: In a cohort of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (glycosylated hemoglobin 8.39 ± 0.24%, 68.1 ± 2.6 mmol/mol, n = 46) of whom half of the individuals were treated with metformin and the other half did not receive metformin as part of an anti-diabetic combination therapy, we assessed TF activity and markers of vascular inflammation. In vitro, human monocytic cells (THP-1) were exposed to metformin and TF expression measured in the presence and absence of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) or the AMPK inhibitor compound C. Results: In the patients, metformin treatment was associated with lower levels of TF protein (241.5 ± 19 vs. 315.4 ± 25 pg/mL, p = 0.03) and reduced TF activity (408.9 ± 49 vs. 643.8 ± 47 U/mL, p = 0.001) compared with controls. Moreover, the patients on metformin showed lower levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)1 (26.6 ± 1.4 vs. 35.03 ± 3.1 ng/mL, p = 0.014) and higher expression of miR-126-3p/U6sno (11.39 ± 2.8 vs. 4.26 ± 0.9, p = 0.006), a known post-transcriptional down regulator of TF and VCAM1. In vitro, metformin dose-dependently reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TF expression in THP-1 cells. The AMPK activator AICAR alone lowered TF expression in THP-1, while the AMPK inhibitor compound C abrogated the metformin-dependent reduction in TF expression. Conclusions: Our data are the first to report that metformin is associated with reduced plasma TF procoagulant activity possibly explaining-at least in part-the vasculoprotective properties of metformin

    The OpenCalphad thermodynamic software interface

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    International audienceThermodynamic data are needed for all kinds of simulations of materials processes. Thermodynamics determines the set of stable phases and also provides chemical potentials, compositions and driving forces for nucleation of new phases and phase transformations. Software to simulate materials properties needs accurate and consistent thermodynamic data to predict metastable states that occur during phase transformations. Due to long calculation times thermodynamic data are frequently pre-calculated into “lookup tables” to speed up calculations. This creates additional uncertainties as data must be interpolated or extrapolated and conditions may differ from those assumed for creating the lookup table. Speed and accuracy requires that thermodynamic software is fully parallelized and the OpenCalphad (OC) software is the first thermodynamic software supporting this feature. This paper gives a brief introduction to computational thermodynamics and introduces the basic features of the OC software and presents four different application examples to demonstrate its versatilit

    Prevalence of colorectal cancer and its precursor lesions in symptomatic patients under 55 years of age undergoing total colonoscopy: results of a large retrospective, multicenter, controlled endoscopy study

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    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Germany. Around 60,000 people were diagnosed CRC in 2016 in Germany. Since 2019, screening colonoscopies are offered in Germany for men by the age of 50 and for women by the age of 55. It is recently discussed if women should also undergo a screening colonoscopy by the age of 50 and if there are any predictors for getting CRC. Methods: Colonoscopies of 1553 symptomatic patients younger than 55 years were compared with colonoscopies of 1075 symptomatic patients older than 55 years. We analyzed if there are any significant differences between those two groups in the prevalence of CRC and its precursor lesions or between symptomatic men and women. We evaluated if there is a correlation between abdominal symptoms and the prevalence of CRC. Results: In 164/1553 symptomatic patients, 194 (12.5%) polyps were detected. In total, six colorectal carcinomas (0.4%) were detected. There were no significant differences between men and women. In symptomatic patients ≄ 55 years, significantly more polyps were found (p<0.0001; 26.6% vs. 12.5%). Totally, 286 polyps (26.6%) were removed in 1075 symptomatic patients older than 55 years. Anorectal bleeding was the only abdominal symptom being a significant indicator for the prevalence of the occurrence of colon and rectum cancer in both groups (p=0.03, OR=2.73 95%-CI [1.11;6.70]), but with only low sensitivity (44%). Conclusion: Due to no significant differences in men and women, we recommend screening colonoscopies also for women by the age of 50