123 research outputs found

    Tools for BIM-GIS integration (IFC georeferencing and conversions): Results from the GeoBIM benchmark 2019

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    The integration of 3D city models with Building Information Models (BIM), coined as GeoBIM, facilitates improved data support to several applications, e.g., 3D map updates, building permits issuing, detailed city analysis, infrastructure design, context-based building design, to name a few. To solve the integration, several issues need to be tackled and solved, i.e., harmonization of features, interoperability, format conversions, integration of procedures. The GeoBIM benchmark 2019, funded by ISPRS and EuroSDR, evaluated the state of implementation of tools addressing some of those issues. In particular, in the part of the benchmark described in this paper, the application of georeferencing to Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) models and making consistent conversions between 3D city models and BIM are investigated, considering the OGC CityGML and buildingSMART IFC as reference standards. In the benchmark, sample datasets in the two reference standards were provided. External volunteers were asked to describe and test georeferencing procedures for IFC models and conversion tools between CityGML and IFC. From the analysis of the delivered answers and processed datasets, it was possible to notice that while there are tools and procedures available to support georeferencing and data conversion, comprehensive definition of the requirements, clear rules to perform such two tasks, as well as solid technological solutions implementing them, are still lacking in functionalities. Those specific issues can be a sensible starting point for planning the next GeoBIM integration agendas

    Association of Spermatogenic Failure with the b2/b3 Partial AZFc Deletion

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    Infertility affects around 1 in 10 men and in most cases the cause is unknown. The Y chromosome plays an important role in spermatogenesis and specific deletions of this chromosome, the AZF deletions, are associated with spermatogenic failure. Recently partial AZF deletions have been described but their association with spermatogenic failure is unclear. Here we screened a total of 339 men with idiopathic spermatogenic failure, and 256 normozoospermic ancestry-matched men for chromosome microdeletions including AZFa, AZFb, AZFc, and the AZFc partial deletions (gr/gr, b1/b3 and b2/b3)

    IMI2-PainCare-BioPain-RCT3: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, multi-center trial in healthy subjects to investigate the effects of lacosamide, pregabalin, and tapentadol on biomarkers of pain processing observed by electroencephalography (EEG)

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    Background IMI2-PainCare-BioPain-RCT3 is one of four similarly designed clinical studies aiming at profiling a set of functional biomarkers of drug effects on the nociceptive system that could serve to accelerate the future development of analgesics, by providing a quantitative understanding between drug exposure and effects of the drug on nociceptive signal processing in human volunteers. IMI2-PainCare-BioPain-RCT3 will focus on biomarkers derived from non-invasive electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of brain activity. Methods This is a multisite single-dose, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 4-period, 4-way crossover, pharmacodynamic (PD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) study in healthy subjects. Biomarkers derived from scalp EEG measurements (laser-evoked brain potentials [LEPs], pinprick-evoked brain potentials [PEPs], resting EEG) will be obtained before and three times after administration of three medications known to act on the nociceptive system (lacosamide, pregabalin, tapentadol) and placebo, given as a single oral dose in separate study periods. Medication effects will be assessed concurrently in a non-sensitized normal condition and a clinically relevant hyperalgesic condition (high-frequency electrical stimulation of the skin). Patient-reported outcomes will also be collected. A sequentially rejective multiple testing approach will be used with overall alpha error of the primary analysis split between LEP and PEP under tapentadol. Remaining treatment arm effects on LEP or PEP or effects on EEG are key secondary confirmatory analyses. Complex statistical analyses and PK-PD modeling are exploratory. Discussion LEPs and PEPs are brain responses related to the selective activation of thermonociceptors and mechanonociceptors. Their amplitudes are dependent on the responsiveness of these nociceptors and the state of the pathways relaying nociceptive input at the level of the spinal cord and brain. The magnitude of resting EEG oscillations is sensitive to changes in brain network function, and some modulations of oscillation magnitude can relate to perceived pain intensity, variations in vigilance, and attentional states. These oscillations can also be affected by analgesic drugs acting on the central nervous system. For these reasons, IMI2-PainCare-BioPain-RCT3 hypothesizes that EEG-derived measures can serve as biomarkers of target engagement of analgesic drugs for future Phase 1 clinical trials. Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials could also benefit from these tools for patient stratification. Trial registration This trial was registered 25/06/2019 in EudraCT (2019%2D%2D001204-37)

    IMI2-PainCare-BioPain-RCT1: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, multi-center trial in healthy subjects to investigate the effects of lacosamide, pregabalin, and tapentadol on biomarkers of pain processing observed by peripheral nerve excitability testing (NET)

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    Background Few new drugs have been developed for chronic pain. Drug development is challenged by uncertainty about whether the drug engages the human target sufficiently to have a meaningful pharmacodynamic effect. IMI2-PainCare-BioPain-RCT1 is one of four similarly designed studies that aim to link different functional biomarkers of drug effects on the nociceptive system that could serve to accelerate the future development of analgesics. This study focusses on biomarkers derived from nerve excitability testing (NET) using threshold tracking of the peripheral nervous system. Methods This is a multisite single-dose, subject and assessor-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 4-period, 4-way crossover, pharmacodynamic (PD), and pharmacokinetic (PK) study in healthy subjects. Biomarkers derived from NET of large sensory and motor fibers and small sensory fibers using perception threshold tracking will be obtained before and three times after administration of three medications known to act on the nociceptive system (lacosamide, pregabalin, tapentadol) and placebo, given as a single oral dose with at least 1 week apart. Motor and sensory NET will be assessed on the right wrist in a non-sensitized normal condition while perception threshold tracking will be performed bilaterally on both non-sensitized and sensitized forearm skin. Cutaneous high-frequency electrical stimulation is used to induce hyperalgesia. Blood samples will be taken for pharmacokinetic purposes and pain ratings as well as predictive psychological traits will be collected. A sequentially rejective multiple testing approach will be used with overall alpha error of the primary analysis split across the two primary outcomes: strength-duration time constant (SDTC; a measure of passive membrane properties and nodal persistent Na+ conductance) of large sensory fibers and SDTC of large motor fibers comparing lacosamide and placebo. The key secondary endpoint is the SDTC measured in small sensory fibers. Remaining treatment arm effects on key NET outcomes and PK modelling are other prespecified secondary or exploratory analyses. Discussion Measurements of NET using threshold tracking protocols are sensitive to membrane potential at the site of stimulation. Sets of useful indices of axonal excitability collectively may provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for membrane polarization, ion channel function, and activity of ionic pumps during the process of impulse conduction. IMI2-PainCare-BioPain-RCT1 hypothesizes that NET can serve as biomarkers of target engagement of analgesic drugs in this compartment of the nociceptive system for future Phase 1 clinical trials. Phase 2 and 3 clinical trials could also benefit from these tools for patient stratification. Trial registration This trial was registered 25/06/2019 in EudraCT (2019-000942-36)

    Heterogeneous clinical phenotypes and cerebral malformations reflected by rotatin cellular dynamics

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    Recessive mutations in RTTN, encoding the protein rotatin, were originally identified as cause of polymicrogyria, a cortical malformation. With time, a wide variety of other brain malformations has been ascribed to RTTN mutations, including primary microcephaly. Rotatin is a centrosomal protein possibly involved in centriolar elongation and ciliogenesis. However, the function of rotatin in brain development is largely unknown and the molecular disease mechanism underlying cortical malformations has not yet been elucidated. We performed both clinical and cell biological studies, aimed at clarifying rotatin function and pathogenesis. Review of the 23 published and five unpublished clinical cases and genomic mutations, including the effect of novel deep intronic pathogenic mutations on RTTN transcripts, allowed us to extrapolate the core phenotype, consisting of intellectual disability, short stature, microcephaly, lissencephaly, periventricular heterotopia, polymicrogyria and other malformations. We show that the severity of the phenotype is related to residual function of the protein, not only the level of mRNA expression. Skin fibroblasts from eight affected individuals were studied by high resolution immunomicroscopy and flow cytometry, in parallel with in vitro expression of RTTN in HEK293T cells. We demonstrate that rotatin regulates different phases of the cell cycle and is mislocalized in affected individuals. Mutant cells showed consistent and severe mitotic failure with centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation, leading to aneuploidy and apoptosis, which could relate to depletion of neuronal progenitors often observed in microcephaly. We confirmed the role of rotatin in functional and structural maintenance of primary cilia and determined that the protein localized not only to the basal body, but also to the axoneme, proving the functional interconnectivity between ciliogenesis and cell cycle progression. Proteomics analysis of both native and exogenous rotatin uncovered that rotatin interacts with the neuronal (non-muscle) myosin heavy chain subunits, motors of nucleokinesis during neuronal migration, and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived bipolar mature neurons rotatin localizes at the centrosome in the leading edge. This illustrates the role of rotatin in neuronal migration. These different functions of rotatin explain why RTTN mutations can lead to heterogeneous cerebral malformations, both related to proliferation and migration defects.Genetics of disease, diagnosis and treatmen

    SCN3A ‐related neurodevelopmental disorder: A spectrum of epilepsy and brain malformation

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    Objective Pathogenic variants in SCN3A , encoding the voltage‐gated sodium channel subunit Nav1.3, cause severe childhood‐onset epilepsy and malformation of cortical development. Here, we define the spectrum of clinical, genetic, and neuroimaging features of SCN3A ‐related neurodevelopmental disorder. Methods Patients were ascertained via an international collaborative network. We compared sodium channels containing wild‐type vs. variant Nav1.3 subunits co‐expressed with β1 and β2 subunits using whole‐cell voltage clamp electrophysiological recordings in a heterologous mammalian system (HEK‐293 T cells). Results Of 22 patients with pathogenic SCN3A variants, most had treatment‐resistant epilepsy beginning in the first year of life (16/21, 76%; median onset, 2 weeks), with severe or profound developmental delay (15/20; 75%). Many, but not all (15/19; 79%), exhibited malformations of cortical development. Pathogenic variants clustered in transmembrane segments 4–6 of domains II‐IV. Most pathogenic missense variants tested (10/11; 91%) displayed gain of channel function, with increased persistent current and/or a leftward shift in the voltage dependence of activation, and all variants associated with malformation of cortical development exhibited gain of channel function. One variant (p.Ile1468Arg) exhibited mixed effects, with gain and partial loss of function. Two variants demonstrated loss of channel function. Interpretation Our study defines SCN3A‐ related neurodevelopmental disorder along a spectrum of severity, but typically including epilepsy and severe or profound developmental delay/intellectual disability. Malformations of cortical development are a characteristic feature of this unusual channelopathy syndrome, present in over 75% of affected individuals. Gain of function at the channel level in developing neurons is likely an important mechanism of disease pathogenesis

    Rare pathogenic variants in WNK3 cause X-linked intellectual disability

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via the DOI in this recordData availability: All data are available upon request. The sequence variants in WNK3 (NM_004656.3) reported in the paper have been deposited in ClinVar database. Their respective accession numbers (SCV002107163 to SCV002107168) are indicated in Tables 1 and S1.Purpose WNK3 kinase (PRKWNK3) has been implicated in the development and function of the brain via its regulation of the cation-chloride cotransporters, but the role of WNK3 in human development is unknown. Method We ascertained exome or genome sequences of individuals with rare familial or sporadic forms of intellectual disability (ID). Results We identified a total of 6 different maternally-inherited, hemizygous, 3 loss-of-function or 3 pathogenic missense variants (p.Pro204Arg, p.Leu300Ser, p.Glu607Val) in WNK3 in 14 male individuals from 6 unrelated families. Affected individuals had identifier with variable presence of epilepsy and structural brain defects. WNK3 variants cosegregated with the disease in 3 different families with multiple affected individuals. This included 1 large family previously diagnosed with X-linked Prieto syndrome. WNK3 pathogenic missense variants localize to the catalytic domain and impede the inhibitory phosphorylation of the neuronal-specific chloride cotransporter KCC2 at threonine 1007, a site critically regulated during the development of synaptic inhibition. Conclusion Pathogenic WNK3 variants cause a rare form of human X-linked identifier with variable epilepsy and structural brain abnormalities and implicate impaired phospho-regulation of KCC2 as a pathogenic mechanism.Estonian Research CouncilNational Natural Science Foundation of ChinaRoyal SocietySouth Carolina Department of Disabilities and Special Needs (SCDDSN)National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS

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