1,378 research outputs found

    Pengaruh Minyak Cumi Pada Umpan Bubu Dasar Terhadap Hasil Tangkapan Ikan-ikan Karang

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    Bottom trap have been used widely by coastal communities in North Sulawesi to catch coral fishes, since it simple in design, cheaper and easy to manage with a small boat. Unfortunately, the fishing practice of the traditional trap is usually conducted in destructive way, where fishermen cover the gear with live coral to attract fishing target. Although the gear\u27s design has evolved over centuries, there is still potential for improving its catching efficiency and selectivity. An attempt to understand the fishing process of bottom trap should therefore be focused on bait and how its chemical composition, visual and physical properties may stimulate target species to attack the bait and captured. Addition of squid liver oil to the bait could increase the fishing power of bottom trap gear. But scientific information\u27s about its applications are not available yet. Therefore, the objective of this research was to study the effect of squid liver oil on bait of bottom trap toward the capture of coral fishes. This research was done in Bangka Strait North of Minahasa, based on experimental method. Six units of bottom trap (bamboo) were operated ten nights in collecting data; where tree units of them used scad mackerel bait that injected by squid liver oil, and tree other units just used scad mackerel bait without squid liver oil; and the capture data were analyzed by ttest. The catch was 117 fish in total consist of 2 genera; 74 fish was caught by scad mackerel bait with squid liver oil, and 43 fish was caught by bait without squid liver oil. Analysis of ttest show that t0= 8.908>t0.05; 5= 3.250; which means that the addition of squid liver oil on bait could increase the catch of bottom trap

    Individual and Regional Determinants of Mammography Uptake

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    Background: Analysis of mammography utilization has traditionally been performed from an individual-level perspective. The purpose of this study was to explore the combined influence of individual- and regional-level determinants of mammography utilization. Methods: Logistic hierarchical multilevel modelling was used to investigate the influences of region of residence and individual characteristics on mammography utilization. Socioeconomic status information about health planning regions was derived from the 1996 Canadian Census. Individual-level information was extracted from the 1996 National Population Health Survey. Results: After controlling for individual-level education, regions with fewer high school graduates had lower levels of mammography utilization. A cross-level interaction between regional-level education and individual-level social involvement was found. Other individual-level variables associated with screening confirmed previous literature findings. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that higher levels of participation in social activities modify the detrimental influence on mammography utilization of living in a less educated region. This challenges the current focus of mammography screening research on individual-level determinants of uptake. Multilevel, synergistic strategies to possibly achieve higher levels of screening should be considered by health promotion program planners

    Toyohari Meridian Therapy: A Form of Acupuncture that Challenges our Assumptions while Opening New Vistas for Explorations of Acupuncture

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    This chapter will cover the origins of Toyohari Meridian Therapy, its theoretical basis, techniques used in diagnosis, and treatment protocols and approaches. It will also explore some of the scientific research into TMT with discussion on the directions of future research

    The use of breast screening services in NSW: Are we moving towards greater equity? [Draft - not for quotation or citation], CHERE Working Paper 2007/7

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    Introduction: Since 1991 State and Federal Governments, under the auspices of BreastScreen Australia, have been providing mammography services free at the point of delivery to women aged 40 and over. One of the stated aims of the program is to provide equitable access to all women in the target group. Methods: Data on self-reported utilisation of breast screening services came from the 1997/98 and 2002/04 NSW Health Surveys. Probit regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between income and breast screening behaviour of women in NSW aged 50 to 69. Results: The results for 2002 and 2004 show that income has a positive and significant impact on the likelihood that a woman chooses to screen for breast cancer at regular intervals. The role of income was consistent across most regions. Women born overseas have a lower likelihood of screening regularly. Results from the pooled dataset show that the income gradient appears to be steeper in 2002/04 compared to 1997/98. Conclusions: These results indicate that the current program has not ensured equitable take-up of mammography services and that further research and investment is needed to meet program objectives.breast screening, Australia

    Breast screening in NSW, Australia: predictors of non-attendance and irregular attendance

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    BreastScreen Australia provides free mammography services to women in the target age group of 50 to 69 years. The program uses a variety of measures to recruit women to the service and, subsequently, encourage them to screen at two year intervals. One of the stated aims of the program is to provide equitable access to all women in the target age group. This paper analyses the extent to which systematic variation can be observed amongst women in terms of their screening behaviour, focusing on those who have never screened or are irregular screeners. Data on self reported utilisation of breast screening services was obtained from the 2002/04 NSW Health Surveys. A multinomial logit (MNL) model was used to examine the role of socioeconomic status, cultural background, education and region of residence on breast screening behaviour. The results show that lower income is associated with a woman never screening or screening irregularly. Region of residence is an important predictor of screening behaviour, although the degree of remoteness was not influential in determining participation. A higher number of hours worked was associated with women being more likely to screen irregularly. These results provide evidence of persistent and systematic variation in screening uptake and regular participation. The results also point towards targeted recruitment and retainment strategies that may provide the greatest potential benefits.breast screening, mammography, NSW, Australia

    Unemployment and Health: Contextual Level Influences on the Production of Health in Populations

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    While there is a large and growing literature investigating the relationship between an individuals' employment status and his or her health, considerably less is known about the effect on this relationship of the context in which unemployment occurs. The aim of this paper is to test for the presence and nature of contextual effects in the ways unemployment and health are related, based on a simple underlying model of stress, social support and health using a large population health survey. An individual's health can be influenced directly by own exposure to unemployment and by exposure to unemployment in the individual's context, and indirectly by the effects these exposures have on the relationship between other health determinants and health. Based on this conceptualization an empirical model, using multi-level analysis, is formulated that identifies a five -stage process for exploring these complex pathways through which unemployment affects health. Results showed that the association of individual unemployment with perceived health is statistically significant. Nevertheless, this study did not provide evidence to support the hypothesis that the association of unemployment with health status depends upon whether the experience of unemployment is shared with people living in the same environment.. Above all, this study demonstrates both the subtlety and complexity of individual and contextual level influences on the health of individuals. Our results caution against simplistic interpretations of the unemployment-health relationship and reinforce the importance of using multi-level statistical methods for investigation of it.Unemployment, population health, contextual effect, multi-level models, survey data set, census data set

    Health human resources planning and the production of health: Development of an extended analytical framework for needs-based health human resources planning.

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    Traditional approaches to health human resources planning emphasize the role of demographic change on the needs for health human resources. Conceptual frameworks have been presented that recognize the limited role of demographic change and the broader determinants of health human resource requirements. Nevertheless, practical applications of health human resources planning continue to base plans on the size and demographic mix of the population applied to simple population-provider or population-utilization ratios. In this paper an analytical framework is developed based on the production of health care services and the multiple determinants of health human resource requirements. In this framework attention is focused on estimating the ‘flow’ of services required to meet the needs of the population that is then translated into the required ‘stock’ of providers to deliver this ‘flow’ of services. The requirements for human resources in the future is shown to depend on four elements: the size and demographic mix of the population (demography), the levels of risks to health and morbidity in the population (epidemiology), the services deemed appropriate to address the levels of risks to health and morbidity (standards of care), and the rate of service delivery by providers (productivity). Application of the framework is illustrated using hypothetical scenarios.health human resources planning, demography, epidemiology, standards of care, productivity

    Sikap Keuangan Pada Perusahaan Keluarga: Peran Moderasi Komitmen Keluarga

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    This study aims to examine the moderating role of family commitment to the influence of the financial knowledge, positive experience with debt suppliers, and   economic  goal  orientation  to  owner- managers’ attitudes toward debt financing in family firms. This study was conducted through a questionnaire survey of 66 owners of family firms, operated in Special Region of Yogyakarta. This study used moderated regression analysis. The results of this study found several important things as follows.  First, the high family commitment toward business strengthened the positive effect of the positive experience with debt suppliers to owner-managers’ attitudes toward debt financing in family firms. Second, the result of the interaction coefficient of economic goal  orientation  and family Commitment was negative and not significant. Third, the result of the interaction coefficient of financial knowledge and family commitment toward business was positive and not significant. This result was opposite to the direction of prediction of the hypothesi

    Targeting services to reduce social inequalities in utilisation: an analysis of breast cancer screening in New South Wales

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    Many jurisdictions have used public funding of health care to reduce or remove price at the point of delivery of services. Whilst this reduces an important barrier to accessing care, it does nothing to discriminate between groups considered to have greater or fewer needs. In this paper, we consider whether active targeted recruitment, in addition to offering a 'free' service, is associated with a reduction in social inequalities in self-reported utilization of the breast screening services in NSW, Australia

    Votes at 16: what the UK can learn from Austria, Norway and the Crown dependencies

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    Implementing the proposal in Ed Miliband’s party conference speech to lower the voting age would make Britain one of only a few countries to allow 16 year olds to vote. In this post, Democratic Audit asks leading democracy experts to share findings from nations that have introduced this change, focusing especially on Austria, Norway and, from closer to home, a number of the UK’s Crown dependencies
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