1,611 research outputs found

    Numerical simulation of steady supersonic flow

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    A noniterative, implicit, space-marching, finite-difference algorithm was developed for the steady thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in conservation-law form. The numerical algorithm is applicable to steady supersonic viscous flow over bodies of arbitrary shape. In addition, the same code can be used to compute supersonic inviscid flow or three-dimensional boundary layers. Computed results from two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the numerical algorithm are in good agreement with those obtained from more costly time-marching techniques

    Numerical generation of two-dimensional grids by the use of Poisson equations with grid control at boundaries

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    A method for generating boundary-fitted, curvilinear, two dimensional grids by the use of the Poisson equations is presented. Grids of C-type and O-type were made about airfoils and other shapes, with circular, rectangular, cascade-type, and other outer boundary shapes. Both viscous and inviscid spacings were used. In all cases, two important types of grid control can be exercised at both inner and outer boundaries. First is arbitrary control of the distances between the boundaries and the adjacent lines of the same coordinate family, i.e., stand-off distances. Second is arbitrary control of the angles with which lines of the opposite coordinate family intersect the boundaries. Thus, both grid cell size (or aspect ratio) and grid cell skewness are controlled at boundaries. Reasonable cell size and shape are ensured even in cases wherein extreme boundary shapes would tend to cause skewness or poorly controlled grid spacing. An inherent feature of the Poisson equations is that lines in the interior of the grid smoothly connect the boundary points (the grid mapping functions are second order differentiable)

    Simplified clustering of nonorthogonal grids generated by elliptic partial differential equations

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    A simple clustering transformation is combined with the Thompson, Thames, and Mastin (TTM) method of generating computational grids to produce controlled mesh spacings. For various practical grids, the resulting hybrid scheme is easier to apply than the inhomogeneous clustering terms included in the TTM method for this purpose. The technique is illustrated in application to airfoil problems, and listings of a FORTRAN computer code for this usage are included

    An efficient approximate factorization implicit scheme for the equations of gasdynamics

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    An efficient implicit finite-difference algorithm for the gas dynamic equations utilizing matrix reduction techniques is presented. A significant reduction in arithmetic operations is achieved while maintaining the same favorable stability characteristics and generality found in the Beam and Warming approximate factorization algorithm. Steady-state solutions to the conservative Euler equations in generalized coordinates are obtained for transonic flows about a NACA 0012 airfoil. The theoretical extension of the matrix reduction technique to the full Navier-Stokes equations in Cartesian coordinates is presented in detail. Linear stability, using a Fourier stability analysis, is demonstrated and discussed for the one-dimensional Euler equations. It is shown that the method offers advantages over the conventional Beam and Warming scheme and can retrofit existing Beam and Warming codes with minimal effort

    The numerical calculation of laminar boundary-layer separation

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    Iterative finite-difference techniques are developed for integrating the boundary-layer equations, without approximation, through a region of reversed flow. The numerical procedures are used to calculate incompressible laminar separated flows and to investigate the conditions for regular behavior at the point of separation. Regular flows are shown to be characterized by an integrable saddle-type singularity that makes it difficult to obtain numerical solutions which pass continuously into the separated region. The singularity is removed and continuous solutions ensured by specifying the wall shear distribution and computing the pressure gradient as part of the solution. Calculated results are presented for several separated flows and the accuracy of the method is verified. A computer program listing and complete solution case are included

    Generation of three-dimensional body-fitted coordinates using hyperbolic partial differential equations

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    An efficient numerical mesh generation scheme capable of creating orthogonal or nearly orthogonal grids about moderately complex three dimensional configurations is described. The mesh is obtained by marching outward from a user specified grid on the body surface. Using spherical grid topology, grids have been generated about full span rectangular wings and a simplified space shuttle orbiter

    Developments in the simulation of compressible inviscid and viscous flow on supercomputers

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    In anticipation of future supercomputers, finite difference codes are rapidly being extended to simulate three-dimensional compressible flow about complex configurations. Some of these developments are reviewed. The importance of computational flow visualization and diagnostic methods to three-dimensional flow simulation is also briefly discussed

    Flux vector splitting of the inviscid equations with application to finite difference methods

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    The conservation-law form of the inviscid gasdynamic equations has the remarkable property that the nonlinear flux vectors are homogeneous functions of degree one. This property readily permits the splitting of flux vectors into subvectors by similarity transformations so that each subvector has associated with it a specified eigenvalue spectrum. As a consequence of flux vector splitting, new explicit and implicit dissipative finite-difference schemes are developed for first-order hyperbolic systems of equations. Appropriate one-sided spatial differences for each split flux vector are used throughout the computational field even if the flow is locally subsonic. The results of some preliminary numerical computations are included

    A conservative implicit finite difference algorithm for the unsteady transonic full potential equation

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    An implicit finite difference procedure is developed to solve the unsteady full potential equation in conservation law form. Computational efficiency is maintained by use of approximate factorization techniques. The numerical algorithm is first order in time and second order in space. A circulation model and difference equations are developed for lifting airfoils in unsteady flow; however, thin airfoil body boundary conditions have been used with stretching functions to simplify the development of the numerical algorithm

    Shock waves and drag in the numerical calculation of isentropic transonic flow

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    Properties of the shock relations for steady, irrotational, transonic flow are discussed and compared for the full and approximate governing potential in common use. Results from numerical experiments are presented to show that the use of proper finite difference schemes provide realistic solutions and do not introduce spurious shock waves. Analysis also shows that realistic drags can be computed from shock waves that occur in isentropic flow. In analogy to the Oswatitsch drag equation, which relates the drag to entropy production in shock waves, a formula is derived for isentropic flow that relates drag to the momentum gain through an isentropic shock. A more accurate formula for drag, based on entropy production, is also derived, and examples of wave drag evaluation based on these formulas are given and comparisons are made with experimental results
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