13,699 research outputs found

    Voldemort Tyrannos: Plato’s Tyrant in the Republic and the Wizarding World

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    In the Harry Potter novel series, by J. K. Rowling, the character of Lord Voldemort is the dictatorial ruler of the Death Eaters and aspiring despot of the entire wizarding community. As such, he serves as an apt subject for the application of Plato’s portrait of the tyrant in Republic IX. The process of applying Plato to Voldemort, however, leads to an apparent anomaly, the resolution of which requires that we move beyond the Republic to the account of beauty presented by Plato in the Symposium. In doing so, we shall find that while Plato can help us to understand Voldemort, Voldemort can also help us to attain a deeper understanding of Plato

    Pragmatism and Meaning: Assessing the Message of Star Trek: The Original Series

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    The original Star Trek television series purported to depict a future in which such evils as sexism and racism do not exist, and intelligent beings from numerous planets live in a condition of peace and mutual benefit. As many scholars have observed, from a standpoint of contemporary theoretical analysis, Star Trek: The Original Series contains many elements that are inimical to the utopia it claims to depict and thus undermine its supposed message. A different perspective may be gained by drawing on the American pragmatist movement, in which the value of an idea is judged by its effectiveness, how it ‘cashes out’ in terms of its impact in real life. Thus, the meaning and value of Star Trek: TOS can be assessed by observing its effects on its audience. This perspective coordinates well with Taylor’s discussion of the necessary conditions for the realization of a protreptic moral order in the social imaginary, as well as a pragmatist understanding of audience engagement and education

    A Prison for Others—A Burden to One\u27s Self

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    Women have come a long way since the mid-1960\u27s, both in the real world and in the world of philosophy. Given the advances in society and the developments within feminism that took place between that decade and the first decade of the 21st century, we might reasonably expect the new Prisonerseries to present a more contemporary perspective on women than the original. Such is most emphatically not the case. If we compare the original Village to the new one, it looks as if those pennyfarthing wheels are spinning backwards instead of forwards

    Consumer-Resource Dynamics: Quantity, Quality, and Allocation

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    CITATION: Getz, W. M. & Owen-Smith, N. 2011. Consumer-resource dynamics : quantity, quality, and allocation. PLoS ONE, 6(1): e14539, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014539.The original publication is available at http://journals.plos.org/plosoneBackground: The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. Methodology and Principal Findings: The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senesce more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. Conclusions/Significance: Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the wellknown paradox of enrichment. Also our results demonstrate how allocation switching can explain observed growth patterns in experimental microbial cultures and discuss how our formulation can address questions that cannot be answered using the quantity-only paradigms that currently predominate. © 2011 Getz, Owen-Smith.http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0014539Publisher's versio

    The Effects of Human Behavioral Changes due to the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Reservoir of Lytic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriophage on Humans at a South Carolina University

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    Bacteriophages are viruses, whose unique ability to infect and lyse bacterial cells may provide valuable insight for evading the repercussions of a post-antibiotic era in medicine. This study isolated and characterized Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage on students and faculty at Coastal Carolina University as a means to understand the viability of human bacteriophage reservoirs for bacteriophage therapy. From September 2021 to March 2022, nasal and postauricular swab samples and a behavioral survey were collected from ninety-three randomly selected participants. Additionally, sixteen participants contributed nasal and postauricular swab samples and a behavioral survey on a monthly basis in a longitudinal study. The purpose of this study was to establish insight into behavioral factors, namely face mask wearing, handwashing/ sanitizing, and perceived stress levels, that potentially contribute to the E. coli and S. aureus bacteriophage dynamics. During the current collection cycle, 2021-2022, there has been a reemergence of bacteriophage since their disappearance the previous collection year. Results indicate participant engagement in mask wearing or handwashing/ sanitizing does not affect coliphage presence, but participants with coliphage presence generally had lower perceived stress levels than those lacking coliphage. Data was limited and correlations could not be made between S. aureus bacteriophage presence and the aforementioned behavioral factors. However, limited data suggests face mask wearing may be correlated to a lack of S. aureus bacteriophage presence on a host

    Cognitive Function is Unaffected during Acute Hypoxic Exposure but was Improved Following Exercise

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    International Journal of Exercise Science 15(5): 1481-1491, 2022. To investigate the effects of two levels of acute hypoxic exposure and exercise compared to normoxia on the Stroop color word test. A total of 14 (4 females and 10 males) active participants with a self-reported (mean±SEM) 8.54±1.44 h/week of physical activity, performed a 3-repetition maximum hex/trap bar deadlift, Hand-Release Push-Up, and Leg Tuck events from the Army Combat Fitness Test at normoxia and normobaric hypoxia of fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of 16% and 14.3%. The Stroop color-word test was administered on a touch screen device before and after the exercise battery, where participants were given congruent (word and ink color matching) and incongruent (non-matching) prompts. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate were recorded at pre- and post-exercise. Variables obtained from the Stroop color word test were not influenced as a result of acute hypoxic exposure but did improve after an exercise battery. Peripheral oxygen saturation was greater during normoxia compared to acute hypoxic exposure which indicated a systemic change in oxygenation. The results of the present study indicated that the Stroop color-word test is not influenced by an FiO2 16% or 14.3%, however, exercise did improve Stroop score and response time

    Persistence and Uncertainty in the Academic Career

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    Understanding how institutional changes within academia may affect the overall potential of science requires a better quantitative representation of how careers evolve over time. Since knowledge spillovers, cumulative advantage, competition, and collaboration are distinctive features of the academic profession, both the employment relationship and the procedures for assigning recognition and allocating funding should be designed to account for these factors. We study the annual production n_{i}(t) of a given scientist i by analyzing longitudinal career data for 200 leading scientists and 100 assistant professors from the physics community. We compare our results with 21,156 sports careers. Our empirical analysis of individual productivity dynamics shows that (i) there are increasing returns for the top individuals within the competitive cohort, and that (ii) the distribution of production growth is a leptokurtic "tent-shaped" distribution that is remarkably symmetric. Our methodology is general, and we speculate that similar features appear in other disciplines where academic publication is essential and collaboration is a key feature. We introduce a model of proportional growth which reproduces these two observations, and additionally accounts for the significantly right-skewed distributions of career longevity and achievement in science. Using this theoretical model, we show that short-term contracts can amplify the effects of competition and uncertainty making careers more vulnerable to early termination, not necessarily due to lack of individual talent and persistence, but because of random negative production shocks. We show that fluctuations in scientific production are quantitatively related to a scientist's collaboration radius and team efficiency.Comment: 29 pages total: 8 main manuscript + 4 figs, 21 SI text + fig

    Dimensions of coping and anxiety symptoms in a community sample of young children

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    Coping style plays an important role in children’s wellbeing. This paper describes the patterns of associations between children’s self-reported coping styles and symptoms of anxiety in order to determine whether particular dimensions are associated with better adjustment. Participants were 2566 children (1268 girls, 1298 boys) aged 7–11 years attending 15 schools in the South East of England. Results showed that aspects of coping were differentially associated with children’s self-reported anxiety. Patterns of association also varied by age and gender. Dimensions of coping were shown to form distinct adaptive and maladaptive coping styles which were also differentially associated with anxiety. Analysis of these styles indicated that it is the absence of maladaptive coping strategies, rather than the presence of adaptive strategies, that is significant in emotional wellbeing. These findings suggest that interventions designed to reduce or extinguish maladaptive coping styles may be of particular benefit in facilitating emotional wellbeing

    A Comparison of U. S. and European University-Industry Relations in the Life Sciences

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    We draw on diverse data sets to compare the institutional organization of upstream life science research across the United States and Europe. Understanding cross-national differences in the organization of innovative labor in the life sciences requires attention to the structure and evolution of biomedical networks involving public research organizations (universities, government laboratories, nonprofit research institutes, and research hospitals), science-based biotechnology firms, and multinational pharmaceutical corporations. We use network visualization methods and correspondence analyses to demonstrate that innovative research in biomedicine has its origins in regional clusters in the United States and in European nations. But the scientific and organizational composition of these regions varies in consequential ways. In the United States, public research organizations and small firms conduct R&D across multiple therapeutic areas and stages of the development process. Ties within and across these regions link small firms and diverse public institutions, contributing to the development of a robust national network. In contrast, the European story is one of regional specialization with a less diverse group of public research organizations working in a smaller number of therapeutic areas. European institutes develop local connections to small firms working on similar scientific problems, while cross-national linkages of European regional clusters typically involve large pharmaceutical corporations. We show that the roles of large and small firms differ in the United States and Europe, arguing that the greater heterogeneity of the U. S. system is based on much closer integration of basic science and clinical development

    Investigation of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriophage Population at a South Carolina University: The Disappearance of S. aureus Bacteriophage Population Amidst the COVID-19 Pandemic

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    Bacteriophages are naturally occurring, nonpathogenic viruses, which infect bacterial cells. Recently, bacteriophage research has increased with hopes of using them against antibiotic resistant bacterial infections in the future. This study aimed to determine a possible correlation between perceived stress and the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage population at Coastal Carolina University (CCU), Conway, South Carolina, using isolation and characterization techniques to further understand humans as a potential bacteriophage source. From October 2020 to March 2021, nasal and postauricular swab samples were collected from 12 participants on a monthly basis along with a perceived stress survey. Samples were subjected to filtration, amplification, plaque assays, and PCR techniques to identify and characterize bacteriophage. The purpose of this study was to understand humans as a repository for bacteriophage and to understand factors, namely perceived stress, which affect bacteriophage presence on humans. Results suggested that possible changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic, such as increased stress levels, mask wearing, and constant hand washing/ sanitizing, caused a drastic decrease in the Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus phage population at Coastal Carolina University
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