8,365 research outputs found

    Mechanism of 3-Methylanthranilic Acid Derepression of the Tryptophan Operon in \u3cem\u3eEscherichia coli\u3c/em\u3e

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    3-Methylanthranilic acid (3MA) inhibits growth and causes derepression of the tryptophan biosynthetic enzymes in wild-type strains of Escherichia coli. Previous reports attributed this effect to an inhibition of the conversion of 1-(o-carboxyphenylamino)-1-deoxyribulose 5-phosphate to indole-3-glycerol phosphate and a consequent reduction in the concentration of endogenous tryptophan. Our studies have shown that 3MA-resistant mutants linked to the tryptophan operon have a feedback-resistant anthranilate synthetase; mutants with an altered indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthetase were not found. 3MA or 7-methylindole can be metabolized to 7-methyltryptophan, and 3MA, 7-methylindole, and 7-methyltryptophan lead to derepression of the tryptophan operon. Furthermore, 3MA-resistant mutants are also resistant to 7-methylindole derepression. These results strongly suggest that the primary cause of derepression by 3MA is through its conversion to 7-methyltryptophan, which can inhibit anthranilate synthetase, thereby decreasing the concentration of endogenous tryptophan. Unlike 5- or 6-methyltryptophan, 7-methyltryptophan does not appear to function as an active corepressor

    A CFH12k lensing survey of X-ray luminous galaxy clusters. II. Weak lensing analysis and global correlations

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    Aims. We present a wide-field multi-color survey of a homogeneous sample of eleven clusters of galaxies for which we measure total masses and mass distributions from weak lensing. This sample, spanning a small range in both X-ray luminosity and redshift, is ideally suited to determining the normalisation of scaling relations between X-ray properties of clusters and their masses (the M − T_X and the M − L_X relations) and also estimating the scatter in these relations at a fixed luminosity. Methods. The eleven clusters in our sample are all X-ray luminous and span a narrow redshift range at z = 0.21 ± 0.04. The weak lensing analysis of the sample is based on ground-based wide-field imaging obtained with the CFH12k camera on CFHT. We use the methodology developed and applied previously on the massive cluster Abell 1689. A Bayesian method, implemented in the Im2shape software, is used to fit the shape parameters of the faint background galaxies and to correct for PSF smearing. A multi-color selection of the background galaxies is applied to retrieve the weak lensing signal, resulting in a background density of sources of ~10 galaxies per square arc minute. With the present data, shear profiles are measured in all clusters out to at least 2 Mpc (more than 15 from the center) with high confidence. The radial shear profiles are fitted with different parametric mass profiles and the virial mass M_(200) is estimated for each cluster and then compared to other physical properties. Results. Scaling relations between mass and optical luminosity indicate an increase of the M/L ratio with luminosity (M/L ∝ L^(0.8)) and a LX−M_(200) relation scaling as L_X ∝ M^(0.83±0.11)_(200) while the normalization of the M_(200) ∝ T^(3/2)_X relation is close to the one expected from hydrodynamical simulations of cluster formation as well as previous X-ray analyses. We suggest that the dispersion in the M_(200) − T_X and M_(200) − L_X relations reflects the different merging and dynamical histories for clusters of similar X-ray luminosities and intrinsic variations in their measured masses. Improved statistics of clusters over a wider mass range are required for a better control of the intrinsic scatter in scaling relations

    Resting state correlates of subdimensions of anxious affect

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    Resting state fMRI may help identify markers of risk for affective disorder. Given the comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders and the heterogeneity of these disorders as defined by DSM, an important challenge is to identify alterations in resting state brain connectivity uniquely associated with distinct profiles of negative affect. The current study aimed to address this by identifying differences in brain connectivity specifically linked to cognitive and physiological profiles of anxiety, controlling for depressed affect. We adopted a two-stage multivariate approach. Hierarchical clustering was used to independently identify dimensions of negative affective style and resting state brain networks. Combining the clustering results, we examined individual differences in resting state connectivity uniquely associated with subdimensions of anxious affect, controlling for depressed affect. Physiological and cognitive subdimensions of anxious affect were identified. Physiological anxiety was associated with widespread alterations in insula connectivity, including decreased connectivity between insula subregions and between the insula and other medial frontal and subcortical networks. This is consistent with the insula facilitating communication between medial frontal and subcortical regions to enable control of physiological affective states. Meanwhile, increased connectivity within a frontoparietal-posterior cingulate cortex-precunous network was specifically associated with cognitive anxiety, potentially reflecting increased spontaneous negative cognition (e.g., worry). These findings suggest that physiological and cognitive anxiety comprise subdimensions of anxiety-related affect and reveal associated alterations in brain connectivity

    ‘Dominant ethnicity’ and the ‘ethnic-civic’ dichotomy in the work of A. D. Smith

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    This article considers the way in which the work of Anthony Smith has helped to structure debates surrounding the role of ethnicity in present-day nations. Two major lines of enquiry are evident here. First, the contemporary role of dominant ethnic groups within 'their' nations and second, the interplay between ethnic and civic elements in nationalist argument. The two processes are related, but maintain elements of distinctiveness. Smith's major contribution to the dominant ethnicity debate has been to disembed ethnicity from the ideologically-charged and/or anglo-centric discourse of ethnic relations and to place it in historical context, thereby opening up space for dominant group ethnicity to be considered as a distinct phenomenon. This said, Smith's work does not adequately account for the vicissitudes of dominant ethnicity in the contemporary West. Building on the classical works of Hans Kohn and Friedrich Meinecke, Anthony Smith has also made a seminal contribution to the debate on civic and ethnic forms of national identity and nationalist ideology. As well as freeing this debate from the strong normative overtones which it has often carried, he has continued to insist that the terms civic and ethnic should be treated as an ideal-typical distinction rather than a scheme of classification

    Detection of Gravitational Lensing in the Cosmic Microwave Background

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    Gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), a long-standing prediction of the standard cosmolgical model, is ultimately expected to be an important source of cosmological information, but first detection has not been achieved to date. We report a 3.4 sigma detection, by applying quadratic estimator techniques to all sky maps from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite, and correlating the result with radio galaxy counts from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). We present our methodology including a detailed discussion of potential contaminants. Our error estimates include systematic uncertainties from density gradients in NVSS, beam effects in WMAP, Galactic microwave foregrounds, resolved and unresolved CMB point sources, and the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect.Comment: 27 pages, 20 figure

    Asymmetries in symmetric quantum walks on two-dimensional networks

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    We study numerically the behavior of continuous-time quantum walks over networks which are topologically equivalent to square lattices. On short time scales, when placing the initial excitation at a corner of the network, we observe a fast, directed transport through the network to the opposite corner. This transport is not ballistic in nature, but rather produced by quantum mechanical interference. In the long time limit, certain walks show an asymmetric limiting probability distribution; this feature depends on the starting site and, remarkably, on the precise size of the network. The limiting probability distributions show patterns which are correlated with the initial condition. This might have consequences for the application of continuous time quantum walk algorithms.Comment: 9 pages, 12 figures, revtex

    Human Performance Contributions to Safety in Commercial Aviation

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    In the commercial aviation domain, large volumes of data are collected and analyzed on the failures and errors that result in infrequent incidents and accidents, but in the absence of data on behaviors that contribute to routine successful outcomes, safety management and system design decisions are based on a small sample of non- representative safety data. Analysis of aviation accident data suggests that human error is implicated in up to 80% of accidents, which has been used to justify future visions for aviation in which the roles of human operators are greatly diminished or eliminated in the interest of creating a safer aviation system. However, failure to fully consider the human contributions to successful system performance in civil aviation represents a significant and largely unrecognized risk when making policy decisions about human roles and responsibilities. Opportunities exist to leverage the vast amount of data that has already been collected, or could be easily obtained, to increase our understanding of human contributions to things going right in commercial aviation. The principal focus of this assessment was to identify current gaps and explore methods for identifying human success data generated by the aviation system, from personnel and within the supporting infrastructure
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