342,939 research outputs found

    The line profile variable B stars

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    The observational status of the line profile variable B stars is summarized. The following areas are discussed: recent history; evolutionary status; line profile variations; line strength variations; and photometric variations

    Adherence to prophylaxis in adolescents and young adults with severe haemophilia, A qualitative study with patients

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    © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.Abstract Introduction: Reported levels of adherence to prophylaxis among young people with haemophilia (YPH) vary widely and are predominately based on estimations made by healthcare professionals and parents. Reasons for (non)adherence among YPH in particular have not been evidenced. Aim: to examine experiences in relation to prophylaxis with YPH themselves, and barriers and facilitators to their adherence. Methods: 11 Participants were recruited in five haemophilia centres across England and Wales. All patients who met the inclusion criteria (aged 12-25, diagnosed with haemophilia, on prophylaxis) were approached during a routine check-up appointment, and all participants who agreed to take part were interviewed. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Results: Self-reported adherence to prophylaxis was good. Few participants admitted to intentionally skipping injections although they reported sometimes forgetting. However, due to the increasingly personalised and flexible approach to prophylaxis, adherence is not straightforward to define. Barriers to adherence included a busy lifestyle, dislike of the intravenous injection, venous access issues, anxiety or stress and being out of one’s normal routine. Support was an important facilitator to adherence, including support from health professionals at the haemophilia centre as well as friends. Parents appear to be very involved with their sons’ haemophilia management, even after their sons leave home. Conclusion: What this study adds is that the increasingly flexible and personalized approach to managing prophylaxis in haemophilia may sometimes lead to confusion around treatment frequency and dosing. This may lead to accidental non-adherence, which is distinct from both skipping and forgetting. Advice from haemophilia teams may not always be consistent, and is likely to be interpreted differently by different individuals. Some additional training and education of patients and their families to increase their knowledge and skills around prophylaxis may reduce this confusion and therefore is likely to improve adherence further.Peer reviewedFinal Published versio

    A simplified, compact static shift register

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    Shift register was developed which uses only one D type flip-flop and improves packaging density by approximately 25% over the usual arrangement. Circuit is compromise between full master-slave arrangement and dynamic shift register, with limitation only of length of time that clock can be held high during new data entry

    Does welfare reform affect fertility? Evidence from the UK

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    In 1999 the UK government made major reforms to the system of child-contingent benefits, including the introduction of Working Families’ Tax Credit and an increase in means-tested Income Support for families with children. Between 1999-2003 government spending per-child on these benefits rose by 50 per cent in real terms, a change that was unprecedented over a thirty year period. This paper examines whether there was a response in childbearing. To identify the effect of the reforms, we exploit the fact that the spending increases were targeted at low-income households and we use the (exogenously determined) education of the woman and her partner to define treatment and control groups. We argue that the reforms are most likely to have a positive fertility effect for women in couples and show that this is the case. We find that there was an increase in births (by around 15 per cent) among the group affected by the reforms

    Television viewing time and risk of incident obesity and central obesity: the English longitudinal study of ageing

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    Background Research suggests television viewing time may be associated with incident obesity and central obesity in young adults. No study has investigated these associations in older English adults. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal associations between television viewing time and incident obesity and central obesity in a sample of older English adults. Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time. Research nurses recorded obesity and central obesity by body mass index and waist circumference, respectively, at four year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and incident obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2) and central obesity (waist >102 cm men; > 88 cm women) at four year follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression. Participants gave full written informed consent to participate in the study and ethical approval was obtained from the London Multicentre Research Ethics Committee. Results A total of 3777 initially non-obese participants (aged 64.8 ± 8.6 yrs, 46.4% male) were included in the analyses using BMI as an outcome and 2947 for the analyses using waist circumference. No significant associations were found between television viewing time and incident obesity. A significant association was found between watching ≥6 hrs/d of television (compared to <2 hrs/d) and central obesity (Odds Ratio 1.48; 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 2.03) after adjustment for covariables including physical activity. Conclusions In this sample of older community dwelling English adults greater television viewing time was associated with incident central obesity, but not total obesity when measured by BMI. Interventions to reduce the incidence of central obesity in this age group that focus on reducing TV time, as well as targeting other health behaviours (eg, increasing physical activity levels, improving dietary intake) might prove useful

    IL-6 controls susceptibility to helminth infection by impeding Th2 responsiveness and altering the Treg phenotype in vivo

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    IL-6 plays a pivotal role in favoring T-cell commitment toward a Th17 cell rather than Treg-cell phenotype, as established through in vitro model systems. We predicted that in the absence of IL-6, mice infected with the gastrointestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus would show reduced Th17-cell responses, but also enhanced Treg-cell activity and consequently greater susceptibility. Surprisingly, worm expulsion was markedly potentiated in IL-6-deficient mice, with significantly stronger adaptive Th2 responses in both IL-6−/− mice and BALB/c recipients of neutralizing anti-IL-6 monoclonal Ab. Although IL-6-deficient mice showed lower steady-state Th17-cell levels, IL-6-independent Th17-cell responses occurred during in vivo infection. We excluded the Th17 response as a factor in protection, as Ab neutralization did not modify immunity to H. polygyrus infection in BALB/c mice. Resistance did correlate with significant changes to the associated Treg-cell phenotype however, as IL-6-deficient mice displayed reduced expression of Foxp3, Helios, and GATA-3, and enhanced production of cytokines within the Treg-cell population. Administration of an anti-IL-2:IL-2 complex boosted Treg-cell proportions in vivo, reduced adaptive Th2 responses to WT levels, and fully restored susceptibility to H. polygyrus in IL-6-deficient mice. Thus, in vivo, IL-6 limits the Th2 response, modifies the Treg-cell phenotype, and promotes host susceptibility following helminth infection

    Review of spectroscopic parameters for upper atmospheric measurements

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    The workshop included communication of spectroscopic data requirements for the planned upper atmosphere research satellite (UARS) mission, review of the status of currently available spectroscopic parameters, and recommendation of additional studies. The objectives were accomplished and resulted in a series of general and specific recommendations for laboratory spectroscopy research to meet the needs of UARS and other atmospheric remote sensing programs

    Modality effects in vocabulary acquisition

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    It is unknown whether modality affects the efficiency with which humans learn novel word forms and their meanings, with previous studies reporting both written and auditory advantages. The current study implements controls whose absence in previous work likely offers explanation for such contradictory findings. In two novel word learning experiments, participants were trained and tested on pseudoword - novel object pairs, with controls on: modality of test, modality of meaning, duration of exposure and transparency of word form. In both experiments word forms were presented in either their written or spoken form, each paired with a pictorial meaning (novel object). Following a 20-minute filler task, participants were tested on their ability to identify the picture-word form pairs on which they were trained. A between subjects design generated four participant groups per experiment 1) written training, written test; 2) written training, spoken test; 3) spoken training, written test; 4) spoken training, spoken test. In Experiment 1 the written stimulus was presented for a time period equal to the duration of the spoken form. Results showed that when the duration of exposure was equal, participants displayed a written training benefit. Given words can be read faster than the time taken for the spoken form to unfold, in Experiment 2 the written form was presented for 300 ms, sufficient time to read the word yet 65% shorter than the duration of the spoken form. No modality effect was observed under these conditions, when exposure to the word form was equivalent. These results demonstrate, at least for proficient readers, that when exposure to the word form is controlled across modalities the efficiency with which word form-meaning associations are learnt does not differ. Our results therefore suggest that, although we typically begin as aural-only word learners, we ultimately converge on developing learning mechanisms that learn equally efficiently from both written and spoken materials